Now people's living standards have improved. After solving the basic living problems, people begin to pay more attention to the quality of life. Now many people raise pets in order to add fun to life and reduce loneliness, but it is inevitable that they will be scratched and bitten in the process of raising pets again. What should they do after being scratched and bitten by pets? How to deal with the wound? In addition to being bitten by a dog, what else needs to be vaccinated against rabies? This article will introduce the wound treatment methods after being scratched and bitten by pets and the need for rabies vaccine. Let's have a look.
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What is rabies?
Rabies is an animal borne infectious disease caused by rabies virus infection. Zoonosis is common to dogs, wolves, cats and other carnivores. People are often infected by bites by sick animals. The clinical manifestations were specific fear of water, wind, pharyngeal muscle spasm, progressive paralysis and so on. Hydrophobia is also known as hydrophobia because of its prominent symptoms. Rabies is an acute infectious disease with the highest mortality in human beings. Once it occurs, the mortality is as high as 100%, so preventive measures should be strengthened.
Do all animals need rabies vaccine?
Rabies susceptible animals mainly include canids, cats and Chiroptera (bats), birds, fish, insects, lizards, oysters, turtles and snakes, which do not infect and transmit rabies virus. The CDC of the United States also pointed out that rodents (especially small rodents, such as chipmunks, squirrels, mice, rats, guinea pigs, gerbils and hamsters) and rabbits (including rabbits and rabbits) are rarely infected with rabies, and no evidence of rabies caused by such animals has been found. What circumstances need to play rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin?
1. Except for grade I exposure, rabies vaccine is required for other exposures.
2. Passive immune agents, i.e. human rabies immunoglobulin or horse derived anti rabies serum, are injected around the wound through infiltration to immediately provide the required neutralizing antibody and neutralize the virus remaining in the wound during wound treatment, so as to prevent the virus from entering the nerve tissue, so as to obtain rapid protection. The WHO rabies expert advisory committee recommends that all class III exposed persons for the first time, as well as class II exposed persons with severe immune deficiency, long-term extensive use of immunosuppressants and head and face exposure, should use rabies passive immune agents. Passive immune preparations should be used as early as possible, preferably immediately after wound cleaning. If it is not injected in time, it can be used within 7 days after the first dose of rabies vaccine. After 7 days, the active immune response caused by the vaccine has appeared. At this time, it is of little significance to use passive immune agents.
What should I do after being bitten or scratched by a pet?
Class I exposure, no disposal required. Rabies virus is sensitive to soapy water, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide and iodine preparation. 45% - 70% ethanol, 1% soapy water and 5% - 7% iodine solution can inactivate the virus within 1 minute. After grade II and III exposure, the wound should be treated immediately and relevant immune preventive treatment should be carried out.
After being bitten by a dog, you don't have to vaccinate immediately. First observe for ten days. Is this right?
incorrect. Rabies vaccination should be carried out as soon as possible after exposure.
If the following conditions are met, '10 day observation method' can be adopted.
① The 10 day observation method is limited to domestic dogs, cats and ferrets, and the injured animals need to have 2 clearly recorded effective rabies vaccine immunization histories;
② Many factors should be considered in the 10 day observation method, such as the epidemiology of animal rabies in the exposed area, wound type, exposure severity, clinical manifestations and immunization status of injured animals, the possibility of isolated observation of injured animals and the availability of laboratory diagnosis.
③ Preventive treatment after exposure shall be started immediately. If possible, suspicious animals shall be identified, isolated for observation (dogs or cats with healthy appearance) or laboratory testing shall be carried out after euthanasia. Post exposure vaccination of vaccine shall be continued while waiting for laboratory results or observation period.
If the laboratory test is positive, a retrospective risk assessment shall be conducted immediately to identify all possible exposed populations, and post exposure prevention procedures shall be given.
If the suspected animal cannot be tested or observed in the laboratory, the whole process post exposure prevention shall be given. If the animal is confirmed not to be infected with rabies by appropriate laboratory testing, the post exposure prevention can be terminated.
When a healthy domestic dog, cat or ferret who has received correct vaccination (at least two effective rabies vaccination records) injures a person, if it is easy to observe for 10 days, especially when the injured person has received pre exposure prophylaxis or post exposure prophylaxis and immunization treatment in the past 3 months, on the premise of ensuring that the injured person is given appropriate wound treatment, Booster immunization can be postponed.
1. Wash the wound: wash each wound of bite and scratch alternately with soapy water (or other weakly alkaline cleaning agent) and flowing water under a certain pressure for at least 15 minutes. If conditions permit, it is recommended to use professional rabies cleaning equipment and special cleaning agent to wash the inside of the wound. Finally, rinse the wound with normal saline to avoid the residue of soap or other cleaning agents.
2. Disinfection treatment: after thorough washing, wipe or disinfect the inside of the wound with dilute iodophor (0.025% ~ 0.05%), benzalkonium chloride (0.005% ~ 0.01%) or other skin and mucous membrane disinfectants with virus inactivation effect.
3. Generally, do not bandage the wound. If bandaging is really necessary, it should also be handled and bandaged by a doctor in the medical treatment clinic.