1、 Causes of constipation (1) primary factors
1. Dietary factors some people eat too little, food is too fine and too fine, the cellulose and moisture in food are insufficient, they can not form a certain amount of stimulation to the intestinal tract, the intestinal peristalsis is slow, and the food residue can not be pushed to the rectum in time, the residence time in the intestine is prolonged, and the excessive absorption of water makes the feces dry. After entering the rectum, the fecal residue can not form enough pressure to stimulate the nerve sensing cells to produce defecation reflex and cause constipation.
2. Defecation power is insufficient, not only the anal sphincter relaxation, levator ani muscle pulling upward and outward, but also the diaphragm descending, abdominal muscle contraction, breath holding force to promote fecal discharge. Old and weak, bedridden, postpartum, etc., can be due to the diaphragm, abdominal muscle, anal sphincter contractile force weakened, abdominal pressure decreased, so that the lack of defecation power, so that the fecal excretion is not clean, fecal block residue, constipation. Therefore, the elderly appear constipation.
3. Delay defecation time. Some people regard defecation as unimportant, which can be as early as late, and ignore the habit of regular defecation; or they delay the defecation time due to busy work, emotional tension, travel life, etc., so that the feces that have arrived in the rectum return to the colon; or they have anal diseases such as anal fissure and hemorrhoids, fear of pain, fear of bleeding, and dare not defecate, and prolong the interval of defecation. All of these may make the nerve cells on the rectal wall slow down to the pressure sensing reaction produced by feces entering the rectum, so that the feces stay in the rectum for a longer time without causing defecation sensation, thus forming habitual constipation.
4. Too much water loss, sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, blood loss and fever can cause water loss and compensatory dry stool.
（2） Secondary factors
1. Organic obstruction When there is stenosis or compression outside the intestinal tube, such as benign and malignant tumors of the intestine, narrowing of the intestinal cavity caused by chronic inflammation, rectal spasm and stenosis caused by megacolon, intestinal adhesion and partial intestinal obstruction after operation, or huge tumor in abdominal cavity, such as ovarian cyst, hysteromyoma, pregnancy and ascites oppressing the large intestine, the feces can be controlled Obstruction, stay in the intestinal tube for too long, forming constipation. In recent years, a new type of constipation has been found by means of defecation radiography, anorectal manometry, colonic transit time measurement and pelvic floor electromyography, which is called outlet obstruction constipation (or pelvic floor muscle dysfunction). It is characterized by obstruction at the outlet of the pelvic floor during defecation, some of which can be eliminated or relieved by surgery. Outlet obstruction constipation is not introduced here, professionals can enter the outlet obstruction constipation to understand.
2. Colorectal diseases such as allergic colitis, diverticulitis, congenital megacolon and other diseases can cause colitis spasm, dyskinesia, and constipation due to poor fecal passage.
3. The drugs affect the use of calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, atropine, prussine, morphine, pheneperidine, bismuth carbonate, and lead, arsenic, mercury, phosphorus and other metal poisoning can cause constipation.
Long term abuse of laxatives can reduce the stress of nerve sensing cells in the intestinal wall. Even if there is enough feces in the intestine, it can not produce normal peristalsis and defecation reflex, which leads to intractable constipation.
4. Mental factors: strong mental stimulation, panic, emotional tension, anxiety or high concentration on a certain job will make the sense of defecation disappear and form constipation.
In addition, nervous system disorders, endocrine disorders, vitamin deficiency can also cause constipation.
（3） Understanding of constipation in traditional Chinese Medicine
According to traditional Chinese medicine, constipation is mainly caused by stagnation of Qi, deficiency of body fluid and deficiency of spleen and kidney.
1. The traditional Chinese medicine thinks that eating too much pungent and thick, over taking warm tonic products can lead to Yang Sheng burning Yin; after heat disease, the waste heat lingers on the intestines and stomach and consumes body fluid; or damp heat is poured into the large intestine to make the intestine dry and hot, hurt the body fluid and constipate. This kind of constipation is also called heat secret.
2. Qi stagnation, emotional discomfort, melancholy, sedentary, sedentary, bedridden, etc,
As a result, large intestine conduction is dereliction of duty, dross stops inside, and becomes a secret knot, that is, the so-called "Qi is stagnant but things are not good.". Feces do not dry, but difficult to discharge is the characteristics of this type, so it is also known as gas secret.
3. Deficiency of body fluid, prolonged illness, postpartum, senile body failure, deficiency of both qi and blood; internal injury of spleen and stomach, lack of drinking water, insufficient chemical source, excessive sweating, diarrhea and damaging Yin, etc. Qi deficiency makes the large intestine weak, and blood deficiency leads to the loss of nourishment of the large intestine, which makes the intestines dry and astringent, so it is called deficiency secret.
4. The spleen and kidney deficiency has a long history of disease in cold years. The kidney yang is deficient and the Yang Qi is not transported, then the Yin and evil are coagulated; or the Spleen Yang is deficient and attacked by the cold, resulting in the spleen and kidney yang failure. If the warm light has no right, the cold and qi stagnation, the intestinal tract transmission is weak, and the stool is difficult, which is called cold secret.
2、 Constipation prevention
（1） Because faeces are mainly composed of food after digestion, it is a simple and easy method to prevent and control the constipation through diet regulation. First of all, we should pay attention to the amount of food, only enough to stimulate intestinal peristalsis, so that the normal passage of feces and discharge from the body. Especially for breakfast.
Second, we should pay attention to the quality of the diet. The staple food should not be too refined. We should pay attention to eating some coarse grains and coarse cereals, because there are many residues after digestion of coarse grains and coarse grains, which can increase the stimulation of intestinal tract and facilitate the operation of stool. Non staple food should pay attention to eat more cellulose vegetables, because normal people need 90-100 mg of cellulose per kilogram of body weight to maintain normal defecation.
Can eat more vegetables, leeks, celery, taro and so on. Because the fiber cord is not easy to digest and absorb, and the amount of residue is large, it can increase the volume of the intestinal tube, increase the pressure in the intestinal tube, increase the intestinal peristalsis, which is conducive to defecation. There is also the need to drink more water, especially heavy manual workers, because of sweating, breathing capacity, water consumption, intestinal moisture is bound to be a large amount of absorption, so to prevent dry stool, you have to drink more water.
Drinking a glass of water before breakfast or after getting up has a mild catharsis effect. Adequate drinking water can make the intestinal tract get enough water, which is conducive to the passage of intestinal contents. In addition, you can intentionally eat more fatty foods, such as walnuts, peanuts, sesame, rapeseed oil, peanut oil, etc., which have good catharsis effect.
（2） Develop good defecation habits
Everyone has a variety of habits, defecation is no exception, to a certain time to defecate, if often delay defecation time, destroy good defecation habits, can make defecation reflex weaken, cause constipation, so do not artificially control defecation feeling. For those who are prone to constipation, we must pay attention to the arrangement of defecation at a reasonable time, go to the toilet every time, and form a good habit of defecation.
（3） Exercise actively
Activities, activities, defecation. Walking, running, deep breathing, qigong, Taijiquan, turning waist and leg, participating in sports activities and physical labor can strengthen gastrointestinal activity, increase appetite, exercise diaphragm, abdominal muscle and anal muscle, improve defecation power and prevent constipation. The rural old people who often work seldom have constipation, but those who are lazy about activities and have good health care are more constipated, which shows this truth.
In ancient times, Daoyin was used to prevent constipation. "The origin and development of miscellaneous diseases, rhinoceros turbid" says, "to keep health secret is to use the tongue to top the palate, to keep the suspension and block up, to read quietly and to produce liquid. When the mouth is full, the red dragon stirs it, gargles and swallows frequently. After listening, it goes straight down to the elixir field, and keeps the static swallowing for several times. The large intestine is self moistening and has the effect of after-treatment. It is suitable for the old and the weak.
（4） Timely treatment of related diseases
The treatment of the disease also has a certain effect on the prevention of constipation. Such as allergic colitis, diverticulitis, colon tumor, colon stenosis; hypothyroidism, diabetes; uterine fibroids; lead, mercury and other metal poisoning.
In addition, Chinese medicine and rice porridge can be used to prevent constipation
1. Sweet potato porridge wash half a catty of sweet potato, cut into small pieces, and 2-3 pieces of Japonica rice. Add appropriate amount of water to cook porridge. When porridge is finished, add appropriate amount of sugar and boil it for two or three times.
2. Take 10-15g purple perilla and 10-15g flaxseed respectively, mash them as mud, grind them slowly with water, filter the juice and remove the residue, and then cook 2 liang of Japonica rice as porridge. It is suitable for the elderly or postpartum.
3. Porridge of cypress seed 10-15g, peeled and mashed, add 1-2 liang of Japonica rice, water, cooking porridge. After the porridge is finished, add in the appropriate amount of honey; then boil it for one or two times.