As we all know, the range of infectious diseases is not only wide, but also easily lead to people suffering from this disease because of its infectivity. Therefore, in daily life, we need to understand and actively grasp the relevant knowledge that can effectively prevent infectious diseases.
(1) Management and control
Infectious source refers to the person or animal that has pathogen parasitic reproduction and can discharge pathogen. The work of eliminating or making harmless infectious sources is called managing infectious sources.
Patients with infectious diseases should be found, reported, isolated and treated early.
In infectious diseases, many infectious diseases are very infectious in the early stage, such as dysentery, influenza, pertussis, etc. for these infectious diseases, we should prevent the spread of these infectious diseases.
Early report is an important means to prevent and control the epidemic of infectious diseases. When suspicious or confirmed infectious disease patients are found, they shall be reported to the local health center or epidemic prevention station. Early isolation can prevent the spread of pathogens, so that patients do not go out, others do not visit. Early and reasonable treatment is conducive to early cure and reduce mortality.
It is also necessary to strengthen the management of carriers and contacts with patients with infectious diseases, and observe and check them regularly under the guidance of epidemic prevention personnel.
Many animal infectious diseases can also infect people. Therefore, the diseased animals with economic value, such as livestock suffering from brucellosis, can be given isolation treatment. For diseased animals with no economic value or great harm, such as dogs suffering from rabies and animals suffering from anthrax, they shall be killed and burned. The separation of human, poultry and livestock is also an important measure to prevent zoonoses.
(2) Protect vulnerable people
In our life, many children are vaccinated when they are born, mainly to prevent the occurrence and prevalence of infectious diseases.
2) Drug prevention
There is no effective vaccine to prevent some infectious diseases, but some drugs can play a preventive role. For example, malaria can be prevented by taking pyrimethamine orally. For people who have been exposed to epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, oral administration of sulfamethoxazole or sulfadiazine can prevent it.
(3) Cut off the way of transmission
In order to transmit infectious diseases from patients or pathogen carriers to healthy people, a specific route of transmission is needed. The common ways of transmission are respiratory tract transmission, intestinal transmission, contact transmission and insect borne transmission. Some infectious diseases, such as hepatitis B, can also be transmitted by blood transfusion, love, delivery and other ways, or by the mother to the fetus through the placenta. Corresponding measures should be taken to cut off the transmission channels.
Treatment of infectious diseases
1. According to the specific disease, adjust the diet structure to ensure that patients can have enough nutrition, such as protein, vitamin, etc., to enhance the resistance of patients.
2. Isolate the patients and disinfect their secretions or other items that may carry pathogens at any time. This is also to prevent repeated infection and aggravate the disease.
3. For pathogens, specific treatment methods are given, such as bacterial infection can be given antibiotics according to bacterial culture, virus infection can be given antiviral treatment.
4. Different diseases have different clinical symptoms. For example, malaria may have brain edema symptoms, so dehydration treatment should be carried out; cholera patients have frequent vomiting and severe dehydration, so they need a lot of fluids to prevent circulatory failure.
5. In addition to the treatment of the disease itself, the sequelae it brings should also be followed up for rehabilitation treatment.
As mentioned above, in order to protect ourselves from infectious diseases, we should take various measures to prevent infectious diseases at ordinary times. Generally speaking, controlling the source of infection, cutting off the route of transmission and protecting the susceptible population are the most commonly used methods to effectively prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases.