If a child has nosebleed, parents should not be careless. They should make a preliminary judgment on the causes of nosebleed in children, which may be the cause of infection or external causes. Only by finding the right reasons can they give correct nursing care.
Acute infection: if the child has a cold, tonsillitis, pneumonia, or scarlet fever, mumps and other infectious diseases, there will be high fever. At this time, the blood vessels of nasal mucosa will also be severely congested and swollen, and even cause capillary rupture and bleeding. This kind of epistaxis must be accompanied by high fever.
Hematological diseases: when suffering from hematologic diseases, thrombocytopenic purpura, aplastic anemia, hemophilia, leukemia, etc., epistaxis is often the earliest symptom, and the child shows inexplicable epistaxis. At this time, parents should pay special attention to it.
1. Trauma: minor trauma, such as digging and blowing the nose, damages the 'Ritter's area' of the nasal septum, which can lead to epistaxis.
2. Inflammation: local inflammation of the nasal cavity, such as acute and chronic rhinitis and sinusitis, can make the blood vessels of nasal mucosa dilate or fester, and cause epistaxis.
3. Tumor: the tumor of nasal cavity, paranasal sinus and nasopharynx is rich in neovascularization. If there is ulcer, tissue necrosis and secondary infection, it will show epistaxis.
What should we do after nosebleed?
1. First of all, parents should calm down and comfort their children. Don't panic in front of the children, which will make the children afraid, cry and worry, and aggravate the bleeding.
2. Take some simple and easy methods to stop epistaxis as soon as possible.
① First, let the child sit down and lean forward. Be sure to let the child breathe through the mouth and pinch the alar of the nose, so that the two nostrils are closed for 10 minutes, and hold the pressure continuously for 10 minutes. Generally can stop mild epistaxis.
② Packing method: use sterile cotton ball to stick Yunnan Baiyao into nostril, or use hemostatic sponge to fill. At this point, it is necessary to observe the pharynx. If the pharynx has blood flowing downward, it means that the epistaxis has not stopped.
③ In the finger pricking method, the middle segment of the middle finger is tied tightly with a rope. The right hand is pricked with left epistaxis, the left hand is pricked with right epistaxis, and both hands are pricked simultaneously with epistaxis.