The scorching sun and scorching heat are hard to endure. This is the season of high incidence of dermatitis. Why are skin diseases common in summer? First of all, people's clothes are thin and their skin is directly exposed, which increases the chance of skin diseases; secondly, in summer, the body consumes a lot, sleep is not good, and the resistance is decreased, which is also a major factor of susceptibility to diseases. Which skin diseases are common in summer? And how to prevent them? In this issue, we invited authoritative experts in dermatology to introduce the prevention and treatment methods of common summer skin diseases for readers.
What are the cognitive misunderstandings of patients with dermatosis in summer
There are some cognitive misunderstandings in the treatment of skin diseases in summer: the first-time patients are often eager to seek treatment and recovery. If they are treated for a few days or even a week, they will question why they are not effective. As a result, many patients will repeatedly change the treatment method, resulting in delayed disease and lost the best treatment period. Long illness patients, often referred to treatment, the effect is not good will be disheartened, finally lose the confidence in treatment. Some patients will be skeptical about all the treatment information and think that all the drug publicity is false and deceptive, while some patients are eager to obtain treatment information and are at a loss in the face of complex treatment plans.
We believe that patients with skin diseases need to strive for the opportunity of early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment. Patients should clearly realize that the treatment effect of skin diseases, the speed of inflammation regression, the length of treatment course, etc., are greatly different due to the differences of individual etiology, disease location, lifestyle and working environment. Some patients can take effect in a week, while others need three or four courses of treatment before they can recover. Therefore, patients suffering from skin diseases in summer should be patient and scientific.
What skin diseases should be prevented in summer
Fungal infection is the most common in summer
The most common skin disease in summer is dermatomycosis, which mainly includes dermatophytosis, tinea versicolor and cutaneous candidiasis. Let's get to know them first.
Dermatophytosis (commonly known as tinea) is caused by fungal dermatophyte infection, which is the most common fungal dermatosis. If dermatophytes infect the palm, it is called tinea manus or goose feet crazy; if it infects the soles of feet and toes, it is called tinea pedis; if it infects the groin, perineum and anus, it is called tinea cruris. Tinea versicolor (commonly known as sweat spot) is caused by Malassezia in fungi. It is most commonly found in the neck, chest, back, buttocks and other sebaceous glands. Skin candidiasis, is caused by the fungus in the Candida, common in the skin wrinkles, such as armpit, breast, groin, anus around, fingers, etc., general patients will appear skin red, erosion.
To prevent fungal infection of the skin, we can start from the following aspects: 1. Clothes and shoes should be loose and breathable. Do not wear tights and pointed high-heeled shoes to prevent sweating; the skin should always be kept clean and dry, and the clothes, shoes and socks should be changed frequently. 2. Do not use public slippers, basins and towels. The underwear and bedding used by patients should be boiled and disinfected, or fumigated with formaldehyde. 3. It is best not to keep cats, dogs and other pets, pets often have fungal infection, may be transmitted to humans. 4. If infection occurs, it should be treated in time; if the whole body skin is infected in many places and the effect of external application ointment is not good, oral antifungal drugs and external medication can be selected for treatment.
How to prevent bacterial infection
In summer, when the skin is exposed to the outside, the risk of trauma is high. In addition, in the humid and hot environment with sweating, bacteria are easy to reproduce on the skin. Many bacteria can cause skin infections, among which Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are the main ones; and common skin bacterial infections include: abscess sores, folliculitis, furuncle, carbuncle, erysipelas, paronychia, etc.
Abscess sores, also known as yellow water sores, occur in children. Abscess sores often occur in the face, limbs and other exposed parts, beginning with papules, small blisters, and then rapidly increasing suppurative. Patients with poor constitution will also have fever, cold stomach, severe sepsis, repeated infection in children will secondary glomerulonephritis. Erysipelas, commonly known as Liuhuo, is the acute inflammation of the skin and its reticular lymphatics. Patients often have skin damage, tinea pedis, sinusitis, etc.
To prevent bacterial infection of skin, citizens should pay attention to personal hygiene, keep their skin clean, often trim their nails, wash hands and change clothes frequently, increase sports activities, and improve the body's disease resistance. Try to avoid skin trauma. If there is a wound, it should be cleaned and disinfected in time, and antibiotics should be used externally; if infection occurs, treatment should be timely to avoid scratching and squeezing.
In addition, small arthropods often bite human skin in summer, such as mites, mosquitoes, mulberry caterpillars, etc. Different skin reactions may occur after these animals bite. If dermatitis occurs after being bitten by mulberry caterpillars or Echinococcus caterpillars, they should be treated as soon as possible. Transparent tape or adhesive plaster should be used to paste several times on the rash, and the toxic hairs attached to the skin surface or penetrating into the superficial layer of the skin should be removed, and then the symptomatic treatment should be given.
Sunlight dermatitis needs sun protection
As the public pay more and more attention to sunscreen, fewer and fewer people come to the clinic for serious sunburn in summer. However, clinically, patients with skin sunburn due to swimming in the sea for a long time will also be seen. This kind of sunburn, usually occurs in the face, neck, forearm and other exposed parts of strong light, local edema erythema, sharp edges, and even blisters. The severity of sunburn symptoms, and exposure time, area and patient tolerance, usually one to two days began to subside, followed by desquamation, temporary pigmentation.
The main way to avoid sunburn is to reduce activities and work at noon under direct sunlight; secondly, take sunscreen measures, such as carrying sunshade umbrella, sunshade cap and external sunscreen; in addition, regular exposure to the sun increases the skin's tolerance to light, which is also an important part of preventing sunburn. Sunburn can be improved by local application of calamine lotion. If necessary, oral antihistamines and even small doses of glucocorticoids can be taken orally.
Finally, summer skin inflammation is also a common skin problem in summer. Summer dermatitis is generally reduced and subsided naturally after the temperature drops and autumn cools. Dermatitis often occurs in the trunk and limbs, especially in the skin in front of the leg, and is often symmetrically distributed. The patient's skin will appear large blood red spots, and accompanied by severe itching. To prevent summer dermatitis, it is necessary to keep indoor heat dissipation and ventilation, clothes should be wide and thin, and skin should be kept clean and dry. In case of rash, calamine lotion, menthol alcohol and other cool drugs can be used for external use, and hormone ointment can be added when it is serious.