What is the status of Genghis Khan Mausoleum in Mongolian People's mind?
Genghis Khan lived in the grottoes when he was injured. The lower right part of the grottoes was carved with a trench for Genghis Khan to sit on the edge of the cliff and shoot arrows.
The mural in the Arzhai Grottoes --- the burial picture of Genghis Khan.
In early July 2002, pan Zhaodong, a famous researcher of Inner Mongolia Academy of Social Sciences, showed a series of pictures and documents' evidence 'to reporters, believing that the major relics found in etok banner, located in Ordos Plateau, may be Genghis Khan's real cemetery. The relics are less than 200 kilometers away from the Genghis Khan Mausoleum in Ordos City.
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The solution to the mystery of Arzhai Grottoes
On the plain grassland of albassu, etok banner, there is a red sandstone Pingding Mountain with a height of tens of meters, which is called the Arzhai grottoes.
According to the secret history of Mongolia, in the autumn of 1226, Genghis Khan, 64, was still ambitious to fight for Tangwu (Xixia), and his wife followed suit. 'in autumn and winter, Genghis Khan led his army to cross the Yellow River in the South and confront the army in the Western Xia Dynasty across the river in etok banner. Genghis Khan led his subordinates to hunt wild horses in the Alpas mountains. His mounts were frightened. Genghis Khan accidentally fell down from his horse and was injured. He was cured in the Arzhai grottoes. According to the secret history of Mongolia, "in winter, Genghis Khan rode a red sand horse and was frightened by wild horses when he went hunting on the ground in the Altai area.". Genghis Khan fell from his horse and fell to the ground. According to experts' research, 'alphas' is now Arbas;' baour hetti ', which means' multi Grottoes gathering place' in Mongolian, while there are few Grottoes in Mongolian Plateau, which can be called 'multi Grottoes gathering place'. At present, only alzhai grottoes are found.
According to batujiri Gala, director of the cultural relics management office of etok banner, the No. 10 Grottoes on the southeast side of the Arzhai grottoes are the places where Genghis Khan lived when he was injured. In front of the grottoes, there is a suread spear representing Genghis Khan's invincibility. Beside the door, there is a relief sculpture of a Buddhist pagoda in the style of Xixia. Two vertical trenches are chiseled on the edge of the cliff in front of the grottoes. It is said that they were chiseled for the convenience of Genghis Khan's sitting archery when he was injured. It is said that Genghis Khan's target is set up a mile away from the front. It can still be found up to now.
In cave 28, there is a mural on the west wall. Pan Zhaodong thinks it should be a picture of Genghis Khan's burial. The whole mural is a ladder structure, with mountains, rivers and fields painted on the top two layers, and the scene of two armies fighting against each other and fiercely in the prominent position, which can be reduced to the scene of Genghis Khan's campaign in Xixia.
On the left side of the third floor are painted a number of white horses, a maroon horse and several camels, which should show that when Genghis Khan hunted wild horses in Albas, he was surprised by the wild horse and fell down. There are two white yurts painted on the right side, with a high spire. On the left side, there is a temple and a palace. In the palace, there is a woman who seems to be crying. It should be a performance of Genghis Khan's death. The accompanying lady is also very sad. The original palaces and temples on the top platform of the Arzhai grottoes were all destroyed in the battle of lindanhan's western expedition to Ordos, and there are still site foundations. The foundation of No. 5 site is round, which is the foundation of a large yurt. No. 6 site is connected with No. 5 site, which is a square foundation with much smaller area than No. 1 and No. 2 sites. No. 1 and No. 2 sites were originally palaces and temples, and they were located in the middle. Since No. 5 and No. 6 sites are connected and different, their functions should be related and different. Pan Zhaodong concluded that the round yurt was the place where the master (Genghis Khan) lived, and the square tent was the place for discussion.
In the middle of the mural, there are three people standing behind a coffin. The man on the left side is dressed in a bundle of sleeves and robes, wearing a helmet shaped round hat. On the right side of the mural, he looks like two monks. They should be the Toray prince who accompanied Genghis Khan to March on Xixia and the monks who prayed for Genghis Khan. The coffin head is wide and the tail is narrow. It is made of a round wood. The ring of the coffin is clear. There are three hoops in the middle of the coffin. Behind the three, there is a square Xieng painted, among which there is a corpse, and four white cranes pick up the corpse with their mouths. There is a monk kneeling on the right side of Xieng, chanting sutras for the dead. Cutting wood for coffin was the burial ceremony of Mongolians at that time.
On the west wall of cave 31, there is also a large mural with many people, which is extremely intriguing. The upper part of the painting, which accounts for about three fifths of the whole picture, depicts a Tantric king of Tibetan Buddhism. In the second half of the painting, there are more than 100 figures of various colors, which are divided into four groups.
The first group consists of eight people. They are a big family with high status and accept all people's kneeling and worship. The central figure is a man with a big body, a square corrugated hat and a Mongolian dress. He sat cross legged, with his right hand on his chest and his left on his leg. On the left is a lady in a Mongolian dress, wearing a Gugu crown, sitting in the same posture as a man, with her head facing the male master. The two ladies sitting on the right side of the man are all dressed in Mongolian dress and wearing a solid crown. However, the sitting posture is different. They only set their right legs, with their left legs half upright and their hands folded in front of their chest. On the left side of the male host, there are four Mongolian men, who are young and without a crown, wearing a tuxedo. They only plate their right legs, close their left legs, and put their hands together. There is no doubt that these eight people are Mongolian dignitaries. According to the analysis of batujirgala, a burly man should be Genghis Khan, and the lady on the left should be empress bottiguzhen, the first lady. The four young men on the left were born to Madame bottiguzhen, Chuchi, Chagatai, wokuotai and Toray. The two ladies on the right side of Genghis Khan were Queen Yigan and queen Hulan, because It's the side lady, so the sitting position is different from that of the first lady. The eight people sat side by side on the white platform, receiving people's worship.
Pan Zhaodong thought that it might be implied that Genghis Khan was the king of Tantrism, which was consistent with the records of ancient stone carvings. What's more, in the middle of the mural, between the Genghis Khan family and the Tantrism king, on the blue and black background, there is a ochre red Pingding Mountain, which is similar to the Arzhai Grottoes mountain.
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Genghis Khan and 100 wells
About 20 miles east of the Arzhai grottoes, there is an ancient well group site, named "baiyanjing". Within less than one square kilometer, there are more than 80 deep wells, beside which there are stone troughs for drinking horses. The local herdsmen call 100 wells "aolennaohaiyin and Riga", which means "well of dogs". On the boundless plateau, more than 80 wells are scattered, tens of meters deep and tens of meters shallow. The wall of the well is smooth, and there is no trace of axe, chopper or step down. In order to prevent sediment deposition, the round retaining wall with a height of about one meter is usually built on stones at the wellhead. In the sparsely populated grassland, who has such magic power?
In the area around baiyanjing, ancient times, it was a land of abundant water and grass, with several rivers flowing slowly into the Yellow River. For grazing, there is no need to dig so many deep wells in a narrow area. The answer can only be found in the activities in Ordos area during Genghis Khan's sixth Southern expedition to Xixia. According to local herdsmen, there used to be 108 deep wells here. With the wind blowing sand, some wells were destroyed, and there are still more than 80 wells left. Due to ecological deterioration and water level decline, most of them have no water. Legend has it that when Genghis Khan marched south, he stationed a large army in this area. One day, Genghis Khan took 108 hunting dogs to hunt yellow sheep, roe deer and foxes on the grassland. It's autumn with a clear sky. Genghis Khan was in a state of anxiety because of the lack of people and horses and the thirst of hounds. Yaoledarima, a great weapon craftsman with great urgency, found the water source as quickly as possible, drilled 108 wells, and solved the urgent need. From then on, Baiyan well was named 'aolennaohaiyin and Riga'.
It's just a magic legend. According to research, when Genghis Khan marched south for the sixth time in Xixia, hundreds of thousands of troops gathered here for about a year. In order to ensure the need of drinking water for soldiers and horses, many wells were dug. This area has been recorded in the historical records such as the historical records of RAST, the history of Duosang Mongolia, the history of menguer and the supplement of the translation of Yuan Dynasty. There are two places mentioned in the historical records that "Weng Hun - Dalan - hudu Hei" is a place where there are 70 wells in Weng Hun, which should be a hundred well area.
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Where is chariot Valley
In 1227, Genghis Khan died in the army when he marched south to Xixia. According to the history of the Yuan Dynasty, in the 22nd year of emperor Taizu's reign, he spent the summer in Liupan Mountain, in June, in Xixia, and in August, he collapsed in the palace of halatu, surichuan, and was buried in Qinian valley. Where is the 'chariot valley' then?
For hundreds of years, several generations of scholars have been trying to solve this mystery. Kravitz, an American millionaire and independent explorer, brought in advanced instruments that can see the depth of 10 meters from home last year, vowing to find Genghis Khan's tomb. From July 17 to 21, 2001, a large mausoleum group 11 meters above the ground was discovered by the joint archaeological team in ugligihorimu, north of the bindel mountains. According to the secret history of Mongolia, bingdel mountain used to be a place for Genghis Khan to sacrifice and worship. In addition to the memorial tablets of more than 400 clans of Mongolia, there are also inscriptions written in various languages. It is said that the body of Genghis Khan's father is buried here. Therefore, the archaeological team believes that the tomb group is likely to be the mysterious Genghis Khan Mausoleum that has not been found.
It is reported that the joint archaeological team found a 76 year old man near the tomb. According to the old man, their family has been guarding this place for a long time. According to Dr. Bazar Gul, Institute of geography, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, the mausoleum group found in khelimu, uglig, should belong to the Xiongnu Khan, because the Xiongnu people have the tradition of burying the remains of the Khan in the underground 10 meters deep. The former Soviet expert Vladimir zov believed that Genghis Khan's mausoleum was in a very secret place, probably at the bottom of the lake.
According to the textual research of Mr. Renqin and Mr. batujiriga, director of the History Office of etok banner, editor in chief of etok banner chronicles, for many years, the place names of Albas area in etok banner are quite consistent with the historical records---
"Qianli mountain", "Qianli ditch" and "qiniangu". In the northwest of etoke banner, there is a mountain near the Yellow River, that is, Qianli mountain. There is a ditch named Qianli ditch between the mountains. Its name in Mongolian is "qierle", which is homophonic with "qichariot". In Han Dynasty, it means the mountain and deep gorge, that is, Longtan and Huxue. "Qiren" and "Qianli" are both translated from "qierle". In history, Qiren Valley is now called Qianli ditch.
The chariot Valley is said to have another explanation: the chariot of the ancient emperor was called 'chariot', the chariot of the emperor was called 'Dragon chariot', and the chariot of the empress was called 'Phoenix chariot'. It's said that Genghis Khan's hearse came here and was deeply buried in the mud. Five people did not move. All the generals kneel down and promise to the ancestors that they will choose a place to build a white house here in the future. Then he shouted 'get up the chariot', and the hearse started as expected. After that, the valley will be called "Qinian Valley". Pan Zhaodong has crossed the mountain and the ditch several times, 'Baote gaoxili' --- 'tuoyangliang'. There is a valley a few kilometers northwest of qianligou (qiniangu). It is surrounded by mountains and rivers. It is a Fengshui treasure land. It is called Baote gaoxili. In Han Dynasty, it means "camel beam" and "grassland with camel Lambs". It is said that it is the place where camel lambs are killed after being buried in jisihan.
'boratolehi' - the place where Genghis Khan dropped his horse whip.