1. Table culture
In old Beijing, under the influence of society, economy, habits and environment, different families or families have formed a table culture with their own characteristics. Many families pay great attention to all kinds of etiquette on the table of old Beijing in the way of eating and dining, which gradually reflects the values of old Beijing in the long middle of the year, and consciously or unconsciously constructs the "etiquette" and "etiquette" Filial piety, morality and education are the contents of table culture.
2. spring cake
Beijing folk food, a kind of pancake, is also called pancake. Every year on spring day, people in Beijing eat spring cakes, called "bite spring". On the second day of the second day of the second lunar month, it is the day when the Dragon rises. On this day, Beijingers will also eat spring cakes, called "eating dragon scales". Spring pancakes are bigger than pancakes made from roast duck, and have toughness (Beijing calls them "bone strength"), because they need to roll many dishes.
3. Qingming Festival food customs
Qingming Festival eating qingtuan, Sanzi, qingmingluo, Wuren rice, run cake vegetables, Li cheese and Huan cake, Zi Tui Mo and other food, are the old Beijing Qingming Festival food customs.
4. Eating customs in the dog days
There is a saying in the old Beijing folk saying: 'head Fu dumplings, two Fu noodles, three Fu pancakes and eggs. 'it's about the catering folk customs that the families of zhufutian in the old Beijing kept. Beijing people like to eat dumplings all the year round. There are many kinds of dumplings and fillings in the hot weather, such as boiled dumplings, hot noodles dumplings, fried dumplings and guotie dumplings.
5. The custom of "eating autumn"
The old Beijingers in our four or nine cities have the custom of "eating autumn" and the folk saying of "stewing big meat in autumn". In general, people at the middle and lower levels pay attention to "eating fresh autumn food". They think that eating new food and eating new fruits and vegetables is the most nutritious. The quadrangle families with better families often cook braised meat, braised fish, stewed chicken and duck and other protein rich meat dishes to stick autumn fat.
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Beijing culture and customs:
1. Peking Opera
Beijing opera, known as the quintessence of China, has a history of more than 200 years. Its predecessor is huidiao, commonly known as PI Huang opera. In the performance, both singing and dancing are emphasized, the martial arts skills are melted, the virtual actions and strong sense of rhythm are used, and many stylized performance actions are created. When singing, we should pay attention to chanting and chanting, which is musical. In singing, reading, doing and playing, it has gradually formed a complete artistic style and performance system. Peking Opera industry is divided into three categories: Sheng, Dan, Jing and Chou. It is accompanied by Jinghu, erhu, Yueqin, Sanxian, flute, suona, drums, gongs, cymbals and other instruments.
2. shadow play
The early Beijing shadow puppets were divided into the East and the West. Beijing shadow puppet has a long period of formation and unique techniques of expression, which is different from other areas of the artistic characteristics of shadow puppet. Mainly in performance, voice, modeling and many other aspects of the difference. Beijing shadow puppet show has long been dominated by the singing hall in the capital, so her performance is more exquisite and exaggerated.
3. nursery rhymes
There are two ways of inheritance of Beijing nursery rhymes: written literature inheritance and oral inheritance. Nursery rhymes are widely sung in children's mouths, with strong local characteristics. Nursery rhyme is a treasure of human oral culture, with simple language and strong philosophy. It accumulates excellent national culture of the motherland and contains rich educational content. Nursery rhyme is a summary of people's experience in production and life. It comes from life and is easy for people to accept. It has been widely spread among people for thousands of years.
4. Wrestling Art
Since the 1920s, baoshanlin (1900-1965), the apprentice of wanbaye, set up a wrestling field in Beijing overpass, and created his own unique wrestling Art: it was active in the late Republic of China and the early Republic of China with its unique wrestling art mode of flexibility, beautiful figure, humorous interpretation, combination of culture and martial arts and Zhongfan. As an excellent national cultural heritage, Tianqiao wrestling not only has the value of folk custom, art, sports, culture, society and history, but also combines with Zhongfan to show the unique wrestling art of Chinese folk.
The old Beijing Hawking is a kind of folk culture formed by the people who used to do business activities in the old Beijing for selling goods and providing paid services in alleys and streets.
Beijing Pingju can be divided into West Road and East Road. The West Road Pingju evolved from the west road lotus flower and the ten not idle, formed around 1900, known as the West Road bounce. Since the Eastern Road Pingju entered Beijing in the 1930s, the western road Pingju has declined gradually. At present, there are no professional performance groups, only a dozen kinds of aria, such as big sad tune, small sad tune, toad tune, and so on, and the inheritors are few.
Beijing storytelling is the main body of northern storytelling, which was formed in Beijing and prevailed in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and the eastern provinces. In the early stage of Beijing storytelling, a person sat behind a table, with folding fans and wood waking as props and dressed in a long gown. In the middle of the last century, it gradually became a standing show, and clothes were no longer fixed.
8. Qin Shu
Beijing Qinshu is a representative kind of music in the art of drum music in Beijing. It's like saying, singing like saying. It's colloquial in the aria. It highlights the local dialect in Beijing. It's fast, slow, easel and scattered. It greatly enriches the performance and singing effect. It's loved by everyone and has high academic and educational value.
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Etiquette and customs in old Beijing:
1. Social etiquette
In the old days, when Beijing people visited relatives and friends, they were supposed to bring gifts, paying attention to "eight pieces for Beijing", that is, eight pieces for big and eight pieces for small. When guests come to our house, we should wash the tea set and make new tea for them. In general, if a guest comes, he / she should have noodles (stretched or fished) to show that he / she can stay for a long time.
2. marriage customs
Beijing People's marriage customs are full of scores. The etiquette of the Han nationality in wedding ceremony can be divided into the old and the new. The new band with floats bows, and the old one with sedan chairs and drumming deacons bows.
There are a lot of Manchu customs in old Beijing. It is well known in old Beijing that "offspring Niang" and "delivery Niang" are important among all the "niangs". Many people (no matter the flag man) worshipped the lady at home. The Manchus did not believe in Buddhism, but kept their SAMA belief since ancient times. "Zhuzhou" is an ancient tradition of the cha nationality, which was not popular in Manchu. The original custom of the Manchu people was to hang bows and arrows at the door of a newborn boy, without the act of catching things at the age of one year.
4. Encoffining and stopping
The great burial is the official burial of the dead body into the coffin. After the coffin is covered, the relatives and the dead can no longer meet. According to the doctrines of Buddhism and Taoism, there is a custom of stopping the spirits among the people in Beijing. The longest time to stop is seventy-nine and forty-nine days, at least three days. Buddha and Dharma must be done during the period of torment. Every "seven" must handle affairs, entertain relatives and friends who come to mourn, and prepare banquet.
5. places of sacrifice
The activities of sacrificing land originated from ancient times. According to the written records, it has a history of more than 4000 years in China (historical records: in May in summer, in June in business, and in the summer solstice in Zhou Dynasty).
Folk traditional crafts:
1. flower arrangement
Traditional flower arrangement can be divided into four types according to the creative crowd: Folk flower arrangement, temple flower arrangement, palace flower arrangement, and scholar flower arrangement. The main containers are six categories, including bottles, plates, bowls, baskets, jars, tubes, etc., which are composed of flower materials, containers, flower arrangements, several shelves, base plates, accessories, etc.
2. facial plastic
Dough figurines are commonly known as dough figurines and jiangmi people. In history, people used flour to knead 'moon cake' and 'noodle fish' during the Spring Festival, resulting in the art of dough sculpture. After several generations of folk artists' Inheritance and development, Beijing dough art has absorbed the essence of other arts, has been widely adopted and explored continuously, and gradually formed a facet art faction with Beijing characteristics. "Mianrenlang" is one of the schools.
3. Folk toys
Rattle: one of the most traditional and oldest toys in China. According to historical records, it was published as early as the Zhou Dynasty and is still loved by people. Mane man: made of plaster, sorghum, cotton, colorful clothes and bristle. With a height of about 9cm, the mane people take the characters in shadow play and Peking Opera as their roles to create different images.
4. Folk skills
Paper cutting, silk people, colored eggs, clay sculptures, kites & hellip; & hellip; many old Beijing traditional folk unique skills, these unique skills and traditional crafts, are the pride of Beijing people, but also the most distinctive Chinese symbol, let people see the original Beijing.
All the things around the hairy monkey are traditional Chinese medicine. Its limbs are made of cicada's exuviated limbs, and its body is another traditional Chinese medicine -- Xinyi, the flower bone flower formed in the autumn of Magnolia. Its surface is covered with dense gray brown fluff, which is the coat to protect the flowers for the winter. When winter goes to spring, the fluff gradually fades away, and the flower bone flower slowly grows into beautiful magnolias. This hairy bone with fluff is very similar to the body of a hairy monkey. It's really wonderful.
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Old Beijing business:
1. Pea cake
"Pea cake" is a kind of cake that sells peas to children through the streets and lanes. Children buy pea cake, not to buy, but to 'smoke pea cake'.
2. play tricks
The mouse player carries a small wooden box with trained mice inside. Blow the lock down the street.
33 selling clothes
In Beijing, there are appraisal shops, one for overpass and one for temple fairs. The so-called appraisal clothes, that is, Seventy-eight percent of the new old clothes, just finished clothes that have not been worn, must also be sold to the appraisal line according to the appraisal clothes, commonly known as "the next scissors is the appraisal clothes".
4. Singing the drum
"Dagushu" is a common form of Quyi in the north in the past. In the late Qing Dynasty, it became popular in the northeast.
5. hoop bucket
Cudgels are not made of wooden barrels. Instead, lead coils are used to tie and repair the broken or scattered barrels. Their skills are mainly "hooping" rather than "making". Of course, they also have the basic skills of carpentry.
6. sugar blowing people
Among the street vendors in Beijing, the most popular one is the sugar blower. The peddler who blows the sugar man should have the craft of making the sugar man, as well as the ability to blow hard. At present, there are still craftsmen blowing sugar man in the streets of old Beijing.
7. Shaving and sleeping
After shaving the head every day, the shaver will sit on the high stool, lying on the shaved leg, making him thump and take it. He is very happy.
8. run a dry ship
Chinese Han folk dance. It's very popular. It's often performed at the festival.
9. make seats
The reeds are bound into mats with ropes. When building houses, they are covered on purlins and covered with mud.
10. selling areca
The method of making areca cake is to put areca into thin slices when boiling sugar, and then make them into small pieces for sale.