At 18:50 local time on April 15, 2019, a major fire broke out in Notre Dame. This fire has aroused the attention of people all over the world. After the fire, it is bound to face very heavy repair work. Can Notre Dame be repaired? How difficult is the repair?
It is reported that the fire is located in the attic of the church, which was undergoing renovation at the time of the fire. Scaffolding was erected around the roof. The fire led to the collapse of its spire, the complete destruction of the wooden roof in the middle and rear, and the preservation of most of its stone vaults.
Notre Dame de Paris is the first completely Gothic church in European history, and it is also one of the most representative historic sites in Paris with a long history, which has epoch-making significance. The fire shocked the world and caused irreversible trauma to this old building with a long history.
In response, the surging news reporter contacted Associate Professor Zhang Peng, deputy director of the Department of architecture, School of architecture and urban planning, Tongji University, and Professor Shao Yong, Department of urban planning. The two architectural experts both said: "what form of Notre Dame is going to be restored may cause great controversy in the field of architectural restoration. '
Le Duke's spire structure may be the biggest loss
According to media reports, the landmark spire of Notre Dame has collapsed in the fire, which, according to Zhang Peng and Shao Yong, may be the biggest loss caused by the fire.
The spire of Notre Dame was restored in the 19th century by the famous French architect Viola Le Duke. He deduced the original form of the steeple from the remains of the steeple in the 13th century, and increased the height of the steeple by 13 meters in order to build a correct proportion with the church as a whole. The restoration is regarded as the representative of the field of cultural relic restoration, and it is difficult to recover after the fire.
'the fire should not have damaged the main structure of Notre Dame, and the main part of the wooden roof was burned. 'shao Yong said. Because Notre Dame de Paris has a complete electronic information file and repair plan, it should not be difficult to restore the wooden structure. '
Shao Yong is a translator of the monograph of Benjamin Mudong, who is in charge of the renovation project of Notre Dame in Paris. He is also a good friend of Mudong himself. In her opinion, the biggest controversy caused by the fire may not be in the field of technology, but in what form should the damaged Notre Dame be restored? "There are many different ideas and debates about the restoration. The future restoration of Notre Dame will lead to extensive discussions and disputes in the fields of architecture, cultural relics and so on. '
After many Renovations: different ideas make Notre Dame today
Shao Yong introduced that in the works of Benjamin Mudong, the restoration process of Notre Dame de Paris in history was introduced in detail. The first stage is from the completion of Notre Dame to the early stage of the French Revolution. The restoration of Notre Dame basically adheres to the concept of "minor repairs and minor repairs", and there is no major change in the overall structure: in 1753, the complex and gloomy colored glass in the Middle Ages was replaced by transparent glass. In 1787, the architect Pavi removed all the things that hung in the air, such as statues, drippers and decorations on the top; in order to accommodate the canopy of the procession, Germain & middot; suflo removed the piers and the bottom lintel of the 'final judgment' gate. In 1787, the spire of the transept was demolished because of poor condition.
The second stage began in 1844. After the French Revolution, the ancient building was seriously damaged. The restoration project was led by Le Duc. He believed that the purpose of the restoration of cultural relics was not to create art, but to obey the art that had disappeared, so as to restore and continue the original idea of construction. He put himself in the position of an architect in the 13th century, not protecting for preservation, but repairing creatively. In the process of his restoration, he integrated his own concept of architecture and remodeled Notre Dame in a stylized way. Many building parts, including the spire, were regenerated after his' creation '.
After the restoration, Notre Dame again presents a balanced and consistent appearance. As Marcel & middot; Obel said, although some principles are still questionable, the sincerity and talent embodied in the restoration should be respected by all. This is the most symbolic restoration in the 19th century. At the same time, it also witnessed the birth of the Department for the protection of cultural relics and buildings, thus becoming an indispensable part of the history of heritage protection.
From the second half of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, Notre Dame regained its youth through some surface 'beauty' measures to remove diseases. But the falling stone incident in 1936 caused people to pay attention to the vulnerability of Notre Dame's structure and the aging of the building. In the 20th century, the protection of Notre Dame falls into three categories: protection, restoration and security. This stage of restoration is led by Benjamin Mudong. Shao Yong introduces that Mudong's main idea of restoration is to emphasize the authenticity and integrity of the heritage, and to preserve the traces of restoration in different historical periods as completely as possible.
With the development of the times, the ideas and paths of cultural relic restoration are also moving. 'shao Yong said. With the advent of the 21st century, new ideas about the restoration of cultural relics are emerging, which will cause extensive discussion. '
Zhang Peng believes that in the 19th century, the concept and methods of heritage protection were still in the early stage, and the Le Duke style restoration method may not be able to reappear in modern times. In France, the threshold of heritage management and restoration is strict. The Ministry of cultural exchange selects national architects according to a specific training mechanism. Only a specific group of people can be qualified for the restoration of cultural relics. The restoration of Notre Dame will become a topic of discussion in the field of world heritage protection. '
For Gucci and other luxury brands to announce their participation in the renovation of Notre Dame, Zhang Peng believes that such a cooperation model is worth learning in China. "In the protection of cultural relics abroad, luxury brands often participate in the restoration through foundations and other forms, which is totally a public welfare event, different from some domestic enterprises for publicity purposes. '