Since the implementation of family planning in China, although the birth rate has been controlled, it has also gradually entered an aging society. So what is population aging? Today we mainly want to know about the new trend of pension development in 2019 around the world.
According to the definition of the United Nations, when a country or region has more than 7% of the total population aged over 65, it means that the country or region has entered the 'aging society'; when the proportion exceeds 14%, it has entered the 'aging society'; when the proportion reaches 20%, it has entered the 'super aging society'. Nowadays, the aging of population is becoming more and more serious. How to make the elderly have a basis for their old age is a common problem faced by all countries in the world.
UK: more development of community pension is like home pension
Britain is one of the countries that entered into the aging earlier, and the aging problem is more serious. According to the data released by the National Bureau of statistics in July 2017, the proportion of the elderly over 65 in the UK is 18% of the total population, and the proportion of the elderly over 85 is 2.4%. It is estimated that the proportion of the elderly over 65 in the UK will reach 24.7% by 2046. At the same time, life expectancy in the UK is increasing. Life expectancy is expected to reach 86.6 years for women and 83.7 years for men by 2036.
At present, most of the elderly in Britain choose to provide for the aged in community, which reflects the concept of "providing for the aged at home" or "as much as possible" as providing for the aged at home ". According to the UK community care act, almost all communities are equipped with relevant auxiliary facilities, providing services and supporting policies for the elderly. On the community website, you can refer to the corresponding services of various pension needs.
Nowadays, the British community pension system has formed a relatively complete system. Compared with the construction of nursing homes and the centralized care of the elderly, the "de institutionalized" community pension can better mobilize folk resources, show the flexibility of pension services, and enable the elderly to integrate into the family and community to the greatest extent, so that the elderly can spend their old age in a familiar environment as much as possible 。 Community service departments are supervised by the government, and their qualifications, service levels and employees' qualifications are checked regularly. According to their own needs and self-care ability, the elderly can choose activity centers, day care centers, nursing institutions, etc. the service content includes taking care of daily life, accompanying shopping for medical treatment, psychological support, etc.
Japan: developing numerous' customized services' for the elderly
In recent years, the aging degree of Japan has been deepening. According to the latest data, the number of elderly people over 65 years old in Japan has reached 35.57 million, accounting for 28.1% of the total population, which is expected to rise to 38% by 2055. With the advent of "super aging society", the elderly have become the focus of Japanese enterprises. The provision of goods and services more suitable for the elderly can not only facilitate the life of the elderly, but also promote the growth of consumer spending and inject new vitality into Japanese enterprises and economy.
In terms of travel services, in March this year, Japan's Social Welfare Association launched a car sharing shopping policy for the elderly over 75 years old. The elderly only need to pay 500 yen (100 yen about 6.12 yuan) for the round-trip to the supermarket within two kilometers. If the distance exceeds two kilometers, an additional 100 yen will be paid for every 500 meters. The service was widely praised by the local elderly - "taxi drivers help to carry things to the door, and don't worry about buying heavier things.". 'the Social Welfare Association of Yichuan city plans to extend the service to the whole city in the next three years and further increase the number of participating stores.
Various daily needs of the elderly also inspire enterprises to carry out many 'customized services'. In recent years, the development of science and technology has facilitated people's lives, but it has also puzzled many elderly people. In order to help the elderly integrate into the smart society, one of the three major telecom operators in Japan, ducomo company has set up a "smart phone classroom" for the elderly to teach them how to use smart phones. In addition, in order to make the elderly better understand the function of home appliances, a Japanese enterprise specially recruited people over 60 years old as staff when selling products for the elderly.
Many cosmetics companies in Japan have launched cosmetics for the elderly. These enterprises enter the nursing home to customize makeup for the elderly, bringing them beautiful enjoyment and pleasant mood.
In terms of diet, meijiwu food chain in Japan has continuously launched soft and delicious food in recent years, so that the elderly who have lost their teeth can also eat delicious food with all colors and flavors. According to the survey of Yano Economic Research Institute of Japan, the market size of processed food for the elderly in Japan has reached 66.8 billion yen in 2017, and will continue to expand in the future.
South Korea: more job opportunities for the elderly
By the end of 2017, the total population of South Korea was 51.42 million, of which the population aged 65 and above accounted for 14.2% of the total population, marking that South Korea has officially entered the 'aging society'.
According to Yonhap, the current population of South Korea aged 65 and over is 7.115 million, accounting for 14.2% of the total population; the population aged 100 and over is 3908, an increase of 12.1% over the previous year. After South Korea entered the "aging society" in 2000, it entered the "aging society" only 17 years later. According to the analysis, the speed of transition from 'aging society' to 'aging society' in South Korea is the highest in the world. It is estimated that South Korea will enter a 'super aging society' in 2026. By 2050, South Korea is expected to have the second largest proportion of the aging population in the world. With the acceleration of Korea's unprecedented super high-speed aging process, the disappearance of the 'demographic dividend' that promotes economic growth in the past decades will become the biggest risk factor for the Korean economy.
Jiyeoun song, an associate professor at the Institute of International Studies at Seoul National University in South Korea, said the country is now aging faster than Japan. "Most of the aging countries in the world are aging at a rate of 15%. It took only seven years for South Korea to grow from 7% to 14%. We expect that South Korea will enter into a super aging society in 2026, that is to say, most of the population is over 65 years old. '
Similar to the current situation in China, South Korea mainly relies on "family pension", but as time goes on, many elderly people in South Korea begin to live alone. The most immediate problem of this solitude is the lack of care. In the future, the elderly living in rural areas will be 'happier' than those living in cities. They can easily connect with the communities around them, and there are neighbors who can take care of each other; however, for an old man in a city, the feelings among apartment residents are mostly cold and silent, 'everyone doesn't know each other, and they can't help when it's critical. '
Song Jiyong said that the South Korean government has introduced two relatively innovative solutions at present -- one is to provide more employment opportunities for the elderly; the other is to borrow money from the government for the elderly and the elderly mortgage their real estate. If the elderly want to use money, they can ask the government to borrow it. After his death, the government can take back his house. '
Germany: accepting immigrants to supplement labor vacancies
Some German media said that Germany has noticed the problem of aging since 20 years ago. Currently, Germany has decided to extend the retirement age to 67 by 2020, and hopes to fill the labor gap by accepting immigrants. For now, the German government's pension spending is facing great challenges, so the level of pension is bound to decline in the future.
In Germany, statutory public pension insurance is the main body, while enterprise pension insurance and private pension insurance are complementary. According to the data, by 2040, the ratio of the number of people receiving pension to the number of people paying endowment insurance in Germany will rise from 53 to 100 to 73 to 100. To this end, the German government is trying to expand the proportion of enterprise endowment insurance and private endowment insurance in the whole insurance system.
The United States: the government pays for relatives to care for the elderly
Expert analysis shows that the United States has entered the aging process for a long time, and the development process is slow, which objectively provides enough time for the American society to cope with the aging of population. The United States has made many beneficial explorations and accumulated rich experience in dealing with the aging of population. The United States has a developed pension system. As early as 1935, the United States Congress passed the social security act. After more than half a century of development, its endowment insurance system has been quite perfect. According to the U.S. social security agency, the number of people participating in retirement pension insurance accounts for about 96% of all employees in the United States, which means almost all social workers have been covered.
'we are now asking community-based care institutions to provide user-centered care. "In the past, this kind of care was usually outsourced to social work institutions, but now the new scheme is to require family members or spouses to take care of the elderly, and then give them some awards appropriately," said Professor Edward middlee of the center for aging research in St. Louis.
'in some states, the pay is about $11 to $15 an hour. If this kind of care is highly skilled, laborious and challenging, the hourly rate may be higher. 'Edward Middleton Lawler said that the program has been put into practice in many states of the United States, and the effect is acceptable.
In addition to the government's purchase of family member care services, there are also private insurance companies involved in the design of related products. They start selling insurance products to a person when he is young, and when he needs to be cared for in old age, they will pay for the purchase of services as needed. "The change of the government's concept of family members caring for the elderly is not a matter of one word, but a matter of practical action, encouragement and cash reward for these family members. 'Edward Middleton Lawler said that most Americans don't think that providing for the aged is the duty of their children. They prefer the independence of the elderly and their children. But now, facing the severe aging trend, the U.S. government is more and more inclined to encourage' home-based pension '.
In the field of technology, Americans are now vigorously supporting telemedicine and telemedicine products, especially in rural areas. This technology has brought great help to the local people. The development funds of these projects are not all raised by the enterprises themselves, many of which come from the medical insurance and medical assistance centers run by the government.
France: promoting tourism for the elderly and entering the 'elderly village'
Since the end of the last century, the French government has gradually adjusted the pension insurance system, increasing the legal retirement age and reducing the pension payment standard. Although France's pension gap has narrowed recently, industry insiders predict that France's pension deficit will return to 0.3% after 2022. The French government still has to work on the long-term layout of pension system reform.
The Old French like to travel and enjoy life. The French government has designed a village for the elderly. All kinds of cultural and recreational activities, such as bridge, dance, concert, forest picnic and water gymnastics, become the spiritual food for the elderly.
Sweden: providing the best pension security in the world
Sweden's pension system is roughly divided into three categories: national pension, employment pension and private storage. In Sweden, even citizens who do not have a fixed unit can still get at least 7600 kroner (about 7300 yuan) of national pension security every month after retirement.
The policy of supporting the elderly will inevitably cost a lot of medical expenses, but Sweden will