Recently, influenza cases have come out in many places. Winter is the peak period of influenza outbreak. Especially for those children with weak resistance, they are most vulnerable to virus attack, so we must do a good job of prevention in winter.
How to distinguish influenza from common cold?
Before we talk about prevention and treatment, the first step we need to do is to distinguish what is influenza and what is common cold.
Otherwise, if the baby is a little feverish and sneezing, we have to be afraid of the baby's' trick '.
Generally speaking, there are two ways to distinguish.
Judging from symptoms
For babies under 3 years old, the following symptoms should be suspected to be influenza:
There was no problem before, and suddenly began to have a fever without any sign, and directly burned to 39 or even 40 ℃, the baby was afraid of cold, shivering, cold hands and feet.
For the first 1-2 days, there is no cough or runny nose, basically 'dry burning'. Cough, runny nose and other symptoms appeared 2-3 days later.
For children over 3 years old, the following symptoms should be suspected to be influenza:
In addition to the sudden high fever, the child will feel uncomfortable all over, such as fatigue, muscle soreness, sore throat, stomachache, etc.
Do virus detection
Of course, that's the truth, but in fact, our parents are already in a state of anxiety when our baby is ill all his life. We can't wait to go to the hospital for 2-3 days.
If you go to the hospital, you should take your baby's nasopharynx secretions for rapid antigen detection of influenza, which is often referred to as nasopharynx swab detection.
The detection of nasopharynx swab is safe, noninvasive, accurate, convenient and fast, which is the first choice.
The operation process is to dip a cotton swab into the secretions of the baby's nose or pharynx and then test them. Generally, the results will be given in half an hour. (PS: it is recommended to dip nasal secretion for convenience)
However, I also know that many hospitals near their homes are not qualified for this test.
In this case, the doctor will choose a blood routine as an auxiliary diagnosis in addition to observing whether the child has some typical symptoms of influenza.
If the blood routine results support virus infection, combined with clinical symptoms, it can also be basically judged to be influenza.
The characteristics of routine blood test are invasive, low accuracy and easy to misdiagnose, but it is better than the high prevalence, most public hospitals can do it.
The blood routine test has a lag, so it is suggested that the blood routine test should be done 24 hours after the baby has a fever. At the same time, the doctor should combine his own clinical experience and the baby's symptoms to make a comprehensive judgment, so as to have a certain reference significance.
02 how to treat influenza after diagnosis?
We know that influenza is caused by a virus. If it is confirmed to be influenza, will the baby wait at home for self-healing?
That's not true.
If the disease is not controlled in time, it is easy to cause serious complications such as otitis media, pneumonia, respiratory failure and so on. It's not that I scared you. No matter how serious it is, it's really dangerous.
Currently, oseltamivir is an effective oral anti influenza drug for children under 7 years old. It can effectively alleviate influenza symptoms, shorten the course of disease and reduce the occurrence of serious complications.
The imported product of this kind of medicine is called "Tamiflu", and the domestic one is called "Kewei".
In addition, as for oseltamivir, I'd like to give you some tips, which must be remembered.
Tips1: oseltamivir is a prescription drug
If the baby is diagnosed with influenza, the doctor will prescribe oseltamivir for the baby according to the situation. At that time, we must remember to ask the usage and precautions, or read the manual carefully.
Tips2: best within 48 hours after onset
However, when the child shows symptoms, we rush to take the child to the hospital for examination. As a result, it's easy to miss the golden period, but don't worry, even if you miss it, you can take it.
Some studies have proved that for children with fever within 5 days, taking oseltamivir has certain effect, but it is not as significant as early use, so it is not strongly recommended.
Tips 3: pay attention to usage and dosage
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, if it is used to treat influenza, the child can take oseltamivir after birth; if it is used to prevent influenza, the child can only take oseltamivir after the age of 3 months.
Tips4: enough treatment
If you are taking oseltamivir to treat influenza, take it for 5 days; if you are taking oseltamivir to prevent influenza, take it for 10 days.
So we must use enough courses of treatment, do not feel that the child's symptoms reduced on their own to stop oh.
Tips 5: don't use other drugs
As mentioned above, oseltamivir is an effective oral antiviral drug for children under 7 years old.
Some antiviral drugs, such as Banlangen, ribavirin, Ganmao Qingre granules, Lanqin oral liquid, Xiaoer chaigui antipyretic granules, Xiaoer Daichi antipyretic granules, have no effect on the treatment of influenza.
03 how to prevent the flu?
After saying how to treat the flu, let's talk about how to prevent the flu before it happens.
Vaccination is the best way
The best way to prevent influenza is to vaccinate against it.
Not only should the baby be vaccinated, but also the parents who contact the baby should be vaccinated.
The baby can be vaccinated at the age of 6 months; if the baby is less than 6 months, as long as the family has been vaccinated with influenza vaccine, it can also indirectly protect the baby.
If the baby doesn't get the flu, he hasn't been vaccinated before. He needs to be vaccinated again after the baby is ready. Because of influenza A, there is no cross protection between different types. In short, for example, if you have had H1N1 before, you will still have the disease if you have H3N2 next time.
Since we said that family members had better be vaccinated with influenza vaccine, at this time, breast-feeding mothers may worry that they are still breastfeeding, will vaccination affect breast-feeding? In fact, we don't need to worry that mothers in breastfeeding period can also be vaccinated with influenza vaccine normally, which will not have adverse effects on children.
Pay more attention to life details
In addition to vaccinating against influenza, we should pay more attention to it in our life.
1. Avoid taking children to crowded public places, such as amusement parks, cinemas, etc.
2 try to avoid contact with sick adults or children. If you have to contact with them, remember to wear masks. When you take your children to the hospital, you should wear masks to protect them.
3 the whole family should wash their hands well. Use soap or hand sanitizer to wash hands. Remember to wash them in seven steps for more than 15 seconds.
Parents should wash their hands and clothes before contacting their children.
5 indoor ventilation 2 times a day, each time about 30 minutes, in good weather ventilation is conducive to reduce the virus density.
6 indoor humidity is maintained at about 50%. Influenza virus likes dry and cold environment, so higher humidity can not only make respiratory tract comfortable, but also reduce influenza virus.
Finally, I hope everyone can take a small book to write down the prevention part, and we will never use the treatment part.