What is fire alkali? Its use and harm in life
Four seas network: Recently, a one and a half-year-old boy swallowed it as white sugar, resulting in severe burns, shock, perforation of the digestive tract and other serious consequences. The most distressing thing is that the boy's grandmother didn't know the properties of the fire alkali, and cleaning the child resulted in serious burns. So what is the fire alkali, what is the purpose of the fire alkali, and what is the harm of the fire alkali? Let's have a look!
In industry, sodium hydroxide is usually called caustic soda or caustic soda. This is because the thick sodium hydroxide solution splashed on the skin will corrode the epidermis and cause burns. It has the function of dissolving protein, strong stimulation and corrosiveness (because it has the function of dissolving protein, compared with acid burn, alkali burn is more difficult to heal). When 0.02% solution was dripped into rabbit eyes, corneal epithelial damage could be caused.
LD50: 40 mg / kg in abdominal cavity of mice and 500 mg / kg in oral ldlo of rabbits. Dust irritates the eyes and respiratory tract, corrodes the nasal septum; splashes on the skin, especially on the mucous membrane, can produce soft scabs and penetrate into deep tissues, leaving scars after burns; splashes into the eyes, not only damage the cornea, but also damage the deep tissues of the eyes, which can cause blindness in serious cases; misadministration can cause gastrointestinal burns, colic, mucosal erosion, vomiting of blood stomach contents, bloody diarrhea Sometimes, hoarseness, dysphagia, shock, gastrointestinal perforation, and later gastrointestinal stenosis may occur. Due to the strong alkalinity, the water body may be polluted. Attention should be paid to plants and aquatic organisms.
Use of caustic soda
1. Ordinary soap is the sodium salt of high-grade fatty acid, which is generally made by saponification of grease under the action of slightly excessive caustic soda.
2. In the printing, dyeing and textile industries, a large number of alkaline liquor should be used to remove the grease on cotton yarn, wool, etc. Caustic soda is also needed to produce man-made fibers.
3. Caustic soda is also used for refined oil. In order to remove the gum from petroleum fractions, sulfuric acid is usually added to the petroleum fractions to make the gum become acid residue. After acid pickling, the oil also contains acid impurities such as phenol, naphthenic acid and excess sulfuric acid, which must be washed with caustic soda solution and then washed with water to get refined petroleum products.
4. In the papermaking industry, first of all, it is necessary to use chemical methods to process the raw materials containing cellulose and chemical agents to make pulp. The so-called alkaline pulping is to use the caustic soda solution as the cooking liquid to remove the lignin, carbohydrate and resin in the raw materials, and neutralize the organic acid in them, so as to separate the cellulose.
5. In metallurgical industry, it is often necessary to change the effective composition of ore into soluble sodium salt in order to remove the insoluble impurities. Therefore, it is often necessary to add caustic soda.
6. In the chemical industry, caustic soda is used in the production of sodium metal and electrolytic water. Caustic soda is used in the production of many inorganic salts, especially in the preparation of some sodium salts. Caustic soda is also used in synthetic dyes, drugs and organic intermediates.