For diabetics, we should make a reasonable diet every day. Foods with high sugar content are not to be eaten, while foods with fat and starch are to be eaten less. Vegetables and grains are the main food, with a certain amount of high-quality protein such as lean meat, milk, eggs, bean products, etc. Fruit contains sugar, so can you eat fruit?
Many vegetables can be used as fruits, such as tomatoes, cucumbers, papayas, etc. the sugar content of every 100 grams of food is less than 5 grams, and rich in vitamins, which can completely replace fruits, suitable for diabetes patients.
In addition, we should cooperate with the food intake and not be unchangeable. Watermelon contains 4% sugar, pear 12%, banana 20%. Watermelon contains less sugar, but if you eat 500g, it's equivalent to 100g banana and 170g pear, so you can't eat too much. At the same time, you should also try to eat it, that is, measure the urine sugar 2 hours after eating. If the urine sugar is increased, it needs to be reduced; if the urine sugar is still high after the fruit is reduced, the main diet should be reduced appropriately.
Misunderstanding of diet in diabetic patients
(1) main food cybernetics, not total calories
The correct understanding is to control a balanced diet of total calories in a day. The main food intake is too low, the body decomposes protein, fat produces heat, further causes three major metabolic disorders, and even produces ketoacidosis. Only control staple food, do not control total calories, blood sugar control will not be ideal Excessive intake of meat and cooking oil results in high total calories.
(2) the less the main food intake, the better
Sugar is an important factor to stimulate insulin secretion. On the premise of total calorie control, the main food intake was relaxed (1921 20%, 1950 40%, 1971 45%, 1986 60%, 1994 65%).
The carbohydrate heat production ratio of diabetic patients is 65% the same as that of normal people, but because the total calories are lower than that of normal people, the amount of staple food is still lower than that of normal people.
Staple food is the cheapest and direct source of heat supply If the staple food is less than 32, it is easy to suffer from ketosis due to hunger.
(3) eat porridge instead of dry rice.
Porridge can be absorbed quickly, blood sugar can rise quickly, and it is mainly dried.
(4) the faster the meal, the better
People with diabetes should not eat too fast. Eating too fast, should not produce a sense of fullness, resulting in overeating. , long meal time, so that glucose concentration is not too concentrated, can make postprandial blood glucose rise smoothly.
(5) it's OK to eat more vegetable oil
We all know that it's harmful to eat more animal oil. We don't know that it's not good to eat more vegetable oil. Vegetable oil is high in unsaturated fatty acids and easy to oxidize. The oxidation of vegetable oil produces peroxides and free radicals, damages cell membrane and is related to carcinogenesis.
High calorie is an important cause of coronary heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes.
(6) eating only vegetables but not meat
Advocate a balanced diet. Animal food nutrition can not be replaced by plant food. The protein content is high, it is high-quality protein, and the proportion of amino acids is suitable for human needs.
Plant proteins (except legumes) are incomplete proteins, lacking lysine and incomplete nutrition Nutrients in animal food are easily absorbed by human body, such as heme iron, organic zinc, organic selenium and organic chromium. Animal food is also a rich source of some vitamins.
It is also unscientific to eat more meat and less vegetables. Eating more meat is bound to cause too high protein, and then bring in more animal fat. Too much meat, too much fat is the disadvantage of Western diet. So it's better to balance.
(7) no sugar, no salt, no harm to taste
More salt means more sodium and more water, which is related to hypertension. It is better to take 5-6G salt every day.
(8) sweet potato can be eaten at will
Sweet potato has high content of cellulose, starch and sugar. It is easy to have postprandial hyperglycemia. It is better not to eat or eat less to exchange with the main food.
(9) I don't want to eat breakfast, but I'll be satisfied with Chinese food.
Do not eat breakfast, easy to cause hypoglycemia. Excessive hunger, at noon must be too full, postprandial blood sugar will be too high, resulting in a day of blood sugar fluctuations.
(10) you can eat any extra meal.
Thin patients or insulin injection patients can eat more than one day. Additional meal is not equal to the amount of heating, and a certain proportion of the total calories in a day is used for additional meal. Don't eat food with too much fat.
(11) you can take no medicine without eating. In order not to take medicine, you can not eat
When there are some reasons for diabetes and you can't eat, you should stop using hypoglycemic drugs to avoid hypoglycemia. It is wrong not to eat or eat less in order not to eat or take less medicine, which will cause malnutrition for a long time.
(12) in order to urinate less and drink less
Polyuria is not caused by too much water in the body, but by high blood sugar. Less drinking water and blood concentration are prone to hyperosmolarity. Only water is not limited in imported substances, but more drinking water is encouraged.
(13) if you are satisfied with your blood sugar control, you will not be able to control your diet
Can we control blood sugar if we don't control diet? Controlling diet will go through the whole process of diabetes treatment
(14) patients with emaciated diabetes can eat at will
Do not eat at will. Weight loss patients (less than 20% of the standard weight, under the control of blood sugar) can properly increase the calorie intake, so that the weight can be increased to the normal level, and the method of more than one meal a day can be used.
(15) patients injected with insulin may not control their diet
The dosage and usage of insulin should be determined on the basis of diet control and adjusted according to the level of blood sugar.
(16) it's OK to eat more vegetables when cooking with large oil and large meat
In the process of heating vegetables, water is lost and oil enters the cells. Eating more vegetables will increase the intake of fat. The more vegetables, the better. We should pay attention to a balanced diet.
(17) starvation is aggravation
Hunger itself is a symptom of diabetes. Check whether the intake is correct. In the absence of hypoglycemia, you can use cucumbers and tomatoes to satisfy the hunger. You can eat some foods with high cellulose content, gradually reduce the calories, do not reach the standard in one step, so that the body has an adaptive process.
(18) peanuts and walnuts are the most hungry and can be eaten more
The reason for starvation tolerance is high fat content, 22 peanuts and walnut produce 500 kcal of heat, which is 1 / 3-1 / 4 of the daily heat. It is better to eat less or not.
(19) eat more, take more medicine, and your blood sugar will not go up
Eat more high blood sugar, take more medicine to be poisoned. For a long time, the drug will fail.
(20) pumpkin and pumpkin products
The blood sugar of eating pumpkin must rise. The health food approved by the Ministry of health is different from the common pumpkin.
(21) sugar free food
Sugar free food does not contain monosaccharide or sucrose, and it still contains carbohydrates like other foods. It is necessary to arrange a certain amount of calories in the total calorie share of a day, and it cannot be eaten casually.
(22) when the blood sugar is low, they also have to bear it
Hypoglycemia is very harmful. Must drink sugar water, eat candy, sweet food.
(23) honey can be eaten at will
Honey contains more glucose, not suitable for eating, please use other methods to relieve constipation.
(24) mahjong can be eaten casually with high fat and high calories, so it is not suitable to eat casually.
(25) you can drink freely
It's forbidden to drink alcohol on an empty stomach. It's easy to cause hypoglycemia. The wine (dry red, dry white) is no more than one or two
(26) fruits and vegetables are almost the same, you can eat them at will
The sugar content of fruit is higher than that of vegetable. The blood sugar after meal is more than 10mmol / L. the patient who can eat fruit should eat between two meals. Eat fruit to carry on the heat exchange, eat the fruit with low sugar content.