4hw.org: in our daily life, we may carelessly ignore some fire hazards, which will lead to the occurrence of fire. What emergency measures can we take to ensure our life safety in addition to asking for help in fire fighting? Here is a small compilation to sort out some fire emergency measures for everyone, hoping to help everyone's life and prevent it in the future.
Fire emergency measures
1. In case of fire, call the police in time and remember the fire alarm number "119". The main points of reporting a fire alarm are as follows: (1) specify the specific address of the unit on fire; (2) specify what the fire is and the size of the fire, so as to deploy the corresponding fire vehicles; (3) specify the name and telephone number of the alarm person; (4) pay attention to the inquiry of the fire brigade, answer correctly and succinctly, and hang up the telephone only when the other party clearly states that the telephone can be hung up; (5) arrive after the alarm Wait for the fire truck at the intersection, and direct the fire truck to the fire site.
2. When there is a fire around, keep calm to avoid making wrong judgment or taking wrong actions in panic and getting hurt.
3. When threatened by the fire, rush out to the exit with wet clothes and bedding; don't drill into the cabinet or under the bed, or hide in the corner; don't covet property, and run blindly into the fire.
4. When the fire floor is above the floor, run downstairs quickly, because the fire is spreading upward. Do not jump blindly. You can use evacuation stairs, balconies, downpipes, etc. to escape and help yourself.
5. When burning, it will emit a large number of smoke and toxic gases, and their spreading speed is 4-8 times that of human running speed. When the smoke is choking, cover your mouth and nose with wet towel and wet clothes and hold your breath. Do not shout loudly. Try to keep your body close to the ground and crawl against the wall to escape from the fire.
6. No matter in the room with or without fire, after escaping to the outside, close the doors and windows on the passage to slow down the smoke spreading along the passage people fled.
7. When being suffocated by smoke and losing self-help ability, try to roll to the wall for the convenience of firefighters' search and rescue, because firefighters are groping along the wall when entering the room. In addition, rolling to the wall can also prevent the house from collapsing and hurting yourself.
8. When your place is closed by fire, you can temporarily retreat into the room. All doors and windows leading to the fire area shall be closed, and the door and window joints shall be blocked with wet bedding, clothes, etc., and water shall be poured to cool down. At the same time, it is necessary to actively look for and rescue outside, and send a distress signal to the window by means of flashlights, waving bright colored clothes, calling, etc., so as to attract the attention of rescuers and wait for rescue.
9. Once trapped by the fire, take emergency refuge actively. Some large-scale comprehensive multi-functional buildings usually have refuge rooms near the common elevators, stairs, public toilets and the end of the corridor. In case of family fire, according to the actual situation, such as using the balcony and other spaces with less combustibles and convenient contact with the outside world, create a small space for refuge.
10. If you are trapped in a floor below the second floor and threatened by fireworks, you can also jump out of the building to escape if you take any self-help measures unconditionally and in urgent time. Before jumping off the building, you should first throw some quilts, mattresses and other soft objects to the ground, then hold the windowsill or balcony with your hands, with your body drooping and falling naturally, so that your feet can land on the soft objects.
11. Pay attention to observe and remember the location and direction of the entrances and exits, emergency exits, emergency exits in shopping malls, hotels, singing halls and other public places; once there is a fire in public places, follow the command of the site staff; when escaping from the crowd, put one hand on your chest to protect yourself, bear external pressure with your shoulders and back, and cover yourself with a wet towel with the other hand Stop breathing toxic gas.
12. Do not take the ordinary elevator in the fire. After a fire, it is easy to cut off the power supply and cause the elevator failure, which makes the rescue work more difficult; in addition, the smoke in the fire field flows into the elevator passage easily to form the chimney effect, and people will be choked by the thick smoke and toxic gas at any time in the elevator.
Methods of timely and accurate fire alarm
In case of a fire, it is necessary to report to the fire brigade, the unit leader and relevant departments at the same time as the surrounding personnel according to the fire situation.
1. Give an alarm to the surrounding personnel: try to make the surrounding personnel understand where the fire is and what is on fire. Inform people to come to put out the fire or tell people to evacuate in an emergency. Indicate the location of the fire point to the fire fighters; indicate the evacuation channel and direction to the people who need to evacuate.
2. Call the fire brigade: call 119 directly. After dialing the phone, you should be calm and calm, and make clear: the unit, location, proximity, what is on fire, the size of the fire, whether someone is trapped, whether there are explosive dangerous substances, radioactive substances, etc. In addition, the name, unit and telephone number of the alarm person shall be clarified, and the fire brigade's inquiry shall be listened to, and the answer shall be accurate and concise. After the alarm, immediately send someone to the door of the unit or the intersection to meet the fire truck, and lead the fire brigade to the fire scene quickly. If the fire is put out before the fire brigade arrives, it shall be timely explained to the fire brigade that the fire has been put out.
Emergency measures for fire evacuation
Evacuation is to evacuate people and materials threatened by fire to a safe place, which is an important measure to reduce casualties and material losses. During evacuation, pay attention to the following points:
1. The evacuees shall give priority to the elderly, children and the sick and disabled people who are inconvenient to walk.
2. Priority should be given to the evacuation of materials, products, equipment, files, materials, etc. of important nature and great value.
3. Priority should also be given to evacuate or take safety measures for articles and equipment with explosion risk.
4. The combustibles stacked between the combustion area and other buildings must also be evacuated preferentially, because they may become the medium of fire spread.
(V) reduce the hazard of heavy smoke
1. Spray a large amount of water to reduce the temperature of the smoke and inhibit the spread speed of the smoke.
2. Cover the mouth and nose with towel or cloth to reduce the inhalation of smoke, close or seal the doors and windows connected with the fire room, and reduce the entrance of thick smoke.
3. When escaping from the fireworks, if the smoke is not too thick, you can lean down and walk; if the smoke is thick, you must walk on your knees. In the air layer 30 cm close to the ground, the smoke is relatively thin. Elevators, stairs and ventilation channels of high-rise buildings are often places where the fire spreads and rises, so we should avoid them. Fireworks go up, people go down.