4hw.com.cn: the fake vaccine event has attracted people's attention recently. The DPT vaccine has also become a hot topic. The DPT vaccine is usually given to newborns. It has advantages, side effects and adverse reactions. Let's have a look.
Adverse reactions of DPT vaccine
The general reaction of pertussis vaccination mainly comes from the bacterial components contained in pertussis. For 12-24 hours after inoculation of the non adsorbed vaccine, there may be redness, pain and itching in the local area, and the axillary lymph nodes on the injection side may be swollen after injection of the individual; for the vaccination containing the adsorbent, the local area may form induration or aseptic abscess.
Rash and angioneuroedema were occasionally seen. The systemic reaction was mainly slight fever, especially when the vaccine was not adsorbed, but it could return to normal 48 hours after inoculation. In addition to fever, it can also be accompanied by short-term symptoms such as burnout, lethargy, restlessness, etc.
The abnormal reaction of DPT vaccine after vaccination is also mainly related to the pertussis component in the vaccine. Very few of them may have allergic reaction, or nervous system complications such as convulsion, convulsion, screaming, etc. However, the incidence of such abnormal reactions is very low, which does not affect the implementation of the immunization policy.
Precautions for DPT vaccine
1. Before vaccination, carefully check the dosage and vaccine validity period, shake them well, and make a good registration of the EPI manual.
2. It is found that there are clots, precipitates or frozen vaccine products, which cannot be used in case of unclear application and expiration.
3. Ask if there is a history of contraindications, and ensure that the immunized person is vaccinated as much as possible based on the principle of no accidents.
4. After the injection of the absorption preparation, local induration may occur, and it can be absorbed in 1-2 months. When the second injection is made, the part should be replaced (injection in the other arm).
5. 1% adrenaline should be prepared before injection for emergency treatment in case of anaphylactic shock.
6. People who are vaccinated with BCG in the skin cannot be vaccinated with DPT in the same place within one month.
Side effects of DPT vaccine
1. Abnormal response of nervous system
(1) Neuritis: it usually occurs 5-7 days or two weeks after vaccination, or even longer. It is manifested as numbness and pain of limbs, weakening or disappearance of tendon reflex, muscle atrophy, paralysis and other symptoms in severe cases. Facial paralysis and angular deviation often occur.
(2) Encephalopathy: it usually occurs within 3 days after vaccination, with convulsions, spasms, convulsions, drowsiness or abnormal howling, but it can be recovered mostly. Very few patients can leave permanent damage, such as limb muscle atrophy and paralysis, mental retardation or epileptic seizures.
(3) Allergic encephalomyelitis: it usually occurs in 1-4 weeks after vaccination, with an average of about 10 days. It is manifested as sudden onset, limb ache, numbness of hands and feet, and may be accompanied by fever, restlessness, drowsiness, vomiting, convulsion. Later, it will appear reflex changes, hemiplegia, cerebral palsy, such as spinal cord damage, limb paralysis, and some may have meningeal irritation such as coma. Most of the patients developed rapidly. After the acute stage, they can gradually alleviate the disease. Individual patients will have sequelae.
Patients with abnormal nervous system reaction can be injected with 50% glucose 40 ml intravenously twice a day, and with adrenocortical hormone. Patients with encephalitis can be dehydrated with mannitol, etc., and given adenosine triphosphate, cytochrome c, coenzyme A and other drugs to promote cell metabolism, and properly supplemented with vitamin C, vitamin B1 and B2.
Generally, it appears within hours or days after vaccination, with various forms of rash, such as urticaria, scarlet fever like rash, exudative papule, blister like polymorphous rash, haemorrhagic rash or purpura, etc., which may be systemic or limited, accompanied by fever, general discomfort and other symptoms. For the treatment of rash, mainly anti allergy, if necessary, hormone therapy can be used.
3. Anaphylactic shock
(1) 1:1000 adrenaline: 0.5-1 ml per time for adults, 0.02-0.03 ml per kilogram for children, subcutaneous injection. If it does not recover after 10 minutes, it can be used again.
(2) Hydrocortisone: add 250-500ml of 5% glucose solution into the vein of 100-200mg each time for adults; add 2-4mg of 5% glucose solution into the vein of 100ml each time for children; in case of emergency, use 1 / 2-2 / 3 of the above adrenaline amount to dilute it into the vein of 20-40ml of 5% glucose solution.
4. Hypotonic hyporesponsiveness (also known as shock like syndrome)
This is a relatively rare complication after the injection of DPT vaccine, which often occurs in infants 2-8 months old, usually within 10 hours after the vaccination. Its manifestations are pale, drowsy, fidgety, anorexia, most of them can recover by themselves. About 0.2% of children can appear sudden collapse, continuous scream, obvious nervous system changes, even death. It may be caused by allergy or hypoglycemia.
5. Angioneurotic edema
It usually occurs within 1-3 days after inoculation. The injection site is red and swollen, and the skin is shiny due to swelling. In serious cases, it can be extended to the whole upper arm. In this case, anti allergic treatment is mainly used.