There will be 1-2 typhoons in the South China Sea and the Northwest Pacific next week. One typhoon may affect Fujian Province after the 18th. The typhoon "Maria" has passed through the country, but we still want to say something about the typhoon. How did the ancients predict the typhoon? What are the myths and legends about the typhoon? How did the word "typhoon" evolve into one.
Magic wins the typhoon
First, we should popularize knowledge. In ancient times, it was not called typhoon. If we saw "hurricane" in the annals, it would be typhoon. In the Qing Dynasty, it was also called "Bi" wind. After 1956, it was called "typhoon".
There are many detailed records and descriptions of typhoons in ancient Chinese historical materials and local chronicles.
In Lu's spring and Autumn & middot; have a look at the beginning, there is an image depiction of "eight winds": "what is the eight winds? In the northeast, it's called Yanfeng, in the East, it's called Taofeng, in the southeast, it's called Fengfeng, in the South, it's called Jufeng, in the southwest, it's called Qifeng, in the west, it's called Lifeng, and in the north, it's called cold wind. It shows that the observation of wind was quite meticulous more than 2000 years ago. The wind is warm, the wind seems to be connected with the hurricane.
Shen Huaiyuan explained typhoon in the annals of Nanyue in the period of Liu Song in the Southern Dynasties: 'hurricane xi'ando, the hurricane, the wind in all directions; one is afraid of the wind, saying fear, often in June and July. In the ninth century (records of foreign bodies in the south of the five ridges), people knew that there would be a special wind before the arrival of the typhoon, which was called "wind refining". The description of "wind refining" is more specific in the book of Panyu miscellany written by Tang Zheng Xiong: 'the hurricane will occur, with gentle breeze and drizzle, slow first and then urgent, which is called "wind refining". '
There are many records of typhoon in Fujian. It is recorded in the chronicles of Funing mansion that in the 13th year of the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, Xin Ziyan, the governor, encountered a typhoon on his way to Fujian. The Mountain God showed his spirit and moved the boat to Taimu. He survived the disaster. Afterwards, the imperial court was reported and attached the picture of Range Rover of Taimu mountain. Emperor Ming of Tang granted the monument of "Yaofeng Taimu relic tower" and made a sensation in the capital. This fairy tale understates and even vaguely describes the typhoon.
Such a legend of maritime adventure is not uncommon in the southeast coast. There is no doubt that Mazu limo became the most closely related to typhoon in the belief of sea god after the Song Dynasty
It is said that in the early years of Xuanhe in the Northern Song Dynasty, Hong Botong, a Putian man, sailed on the sea, encountering a hurricane, and the ship was almost destroyed. He called for the goddess to rescue him. Then the sea was suddenly calm and the Hong family escaped the disaster of extinction. It's also said that Zheng He had seven voyages to the west, and three times the fleet met with the risk of a hurricane at sea. Every time, it was said that Mazu had taken shelter and escaped.
It is also said that in 1663, Zhang Xueli and others went to Ryukyu to return to Ryukyu. In 1719, he sent Haibao, Xu Baoguang and others to Ryukyu to return to Ryukyu to encounter cyclones. In 1839, he sent Lin Hongnian to Ryukyu to encounter two storms & hellip; hellip; on his way to Ryukyu;
These stories about Mazu's fight against the typhoon all have time, place and characters. Lin Hongnian, a native of Fuzhou, was the first champion of the Qing Dynasty in Fujian Province. In people's consciousness at that time, the power of God seemed to be able to overcome the typhoon and save the world.
The cruel side of Local Records
According to the incomplete records in the historical books of Fujian's wind disaster, the earliest records began in Zhenguan period of Tang Dynasty, including once in Tang Dynasty, 17 times in Northern Song Dynasty, 19 times in Southern Song Dynasty, 5 times in Yuan Dynasty, 178 times in Ming Dynasty, 71 times in Wanli and tianqi years of Ming Dynasty
Compared with mythology, the records in local chronicles are more real and tragic:
On June 19, 1483, mingchenghua, Xiapu, Ningde, Luoyuan, Lianjiang, Changle, Fuzhou, Fuqing, Putian coastal areas and Minqing, Yongtai, etc. were all attacked by typhoon, with casualties and soaring grain quality recorded in the county annals of all regions in history.
For example, in the case of Gengchen in Fuzhou, when the wind and rain blows and the trees are pulled out, the bad public office and the people's house will not win. In the nine counties of Fujian, Houguan, Huai'an, Changle, Lianjiang, Fuqing, Luoyuan, Yongfu and Minqing, the houses near the river were destroyed, especially the houses near the river. Over half of the crops in Tianchou collapsed and destroyed the river. There were not thousands of official and private boats floating, and thousands of people drowned.
Lianjiang is a big hurricane. It pulls out wood and houses. It destroys farmland and crops. There are no people or animals. It's the same day in Jiuxian county. In Putian, there was a sea breeze, the sea overflowed, the fields were flooded, and the rice was more than 100 yuan. In Xiapu, there was even a tsunami.
How did the ancients predict the typhoon?
The ancients didn't know enough about typhoon and could not predict it accurately, but they had experienced many natural experiences and summed up some rules, such as a large number of shallow sea fish floating up, and a large number of deep sea fish coming to the shallow sea, which indicated that typhoon was coming.
Typhoon can also be predicted according to the signs of some astronomical and physical phenomena. In addition to the "wind refining" mentioned above, the record of mountains records: "between summer and autumn in the South China Sea, there is a halo like a rainbow, which is called the mother of a hurricane, there must be a hurricane.".
It is also the experience of fishermen in Fujian and other coastal areas. When the typhoon center is about 5600Km away from the coast, it can be seen that the eastern sky is dotted with tangled clouds, which spread like fans from the horizon (the meteorological academic term is called "radial cirrus cloud"), about 67km high. In the morning and evening, there will be beautiful colorful clouds in the sky, The typhoon is coming.
The Fujian miscellany written by Shi hongbao in the Qing dynasty recorded many people's prediction methods of typhoon, one of which is quite interesting: the ancients thought that typhoon has "shape and color", the shape of wind "the first round waist is wide, the two sides below the waist are separated", and also has tens of feet long tail. As for the color of the wind, it is often "blue, yellow, red and black", but "black is more".
When the wind comes, it's like the Limulus in the sea pushing the tide forward. According to the records, this is more like the form of sea wind and waves before the arrival of typhoon. There is also a record of wind direction and cloud color in the book: (typhoon comes) a cloud will float down like a fish on the first night, which is commonly known as a fish in the wind; 'the white one will be slow, the black one will be strong, and the black one will be more likely to fold the mast and tilt the canopy. '
Before the typhoon comes, there must be fish shaped clouds. If the cloud color is white, it indicates that the typhoon will ease. If the cloud color is black, it indicates that the typhoon will be fierce.
Sweet potato and typhoon
How sweet potatoes came to Fujian is related to a Changle man named Chen Zhenlong, but you may not know that sweet potatoes are quite related to typhoons.
There is a saying that in 1593, Chen Zhenlong's sea boat broke down on Luzon Island in the Philippines because of a typhoon. Chen Zhenlong found that sweet potato is a good thing, which can "live with the plant", so after several adventures, he twisted the rattan into the water absorption rope, hid in the boat, and brought the seed back to his hometown Fuzhou.
Zhou Lianggong's "Min Xiaoji" also said that during the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty, Fujian suffered from famine due to the destruction of crops by typhoon, and the government transported sweet potato seeds back to Wanli in 23 years. --It can be said that the typhoon sent Chen Zhenlong to Luzon Island, where he found sweet potatoes and brought them back to his hometown for the benefit of the people. What he solved was the famine brought by the typhoon (including drought).
Lu Xun's love letters have no love words but a typhoon
Draw the time closer and tell a famous love story related to typhoon. The protagonist of the story is Lu Xun with a serious face
Until Lu Xun's time, typhoons were still called hurricanes. On August 26, 1926, Lu Xun arrived in Xiamen on September 4 at the invitation of Lin Yutang, then head of the Department of Chinese Studies of Xiamen University, and became a professor of the Department of literature and the Institute of Chinese Studies of Xiamen University. In the past four months, there has been a typhoon. A week after arriving in Xiamen to settle down, he sent a postcard of Xiamen University to Xu Guangping in Guangzhou. In addition to indicating his residence with an asterisk, he also told his feelings about a 'Hurricane' that had just come.
'& hellip; & hellip; last night, there was a hurricane. I pulled out the wood and started the house, but I was not damaged. The signature is "Xun, September 11". This postcard is included in the two places book. Mr. Lu Xun wrote the main text of the letter on one side of the photo, in order to specially introduce the location of Nanputuo and Gulangyu to Xu Guangping in the panoramic photo, and even mark the place where he lives in the school of biology and the national college. Instead of talking about love, he wrote about life details such as hurricanes, with a "quick" word, breaking through the sky, which is an indistinct intimacy.