4hw.org: China's folk marriage with Yin has a long history. It's not a unique folk custom in China. It's also prevalent in some Asian countries, such as Korea and Japan. It means finding a spouse to marry a dead person. With the development of science, this superstition has not been put to an end. Let's take a look at what is the emphasis and process of marriage with Yin?
Some old people think that if they don't marry for them, their ghosts will make trouble and make the house uneasy. Therefore, we must hold a ceremony for them to marry in the shade. Finally, we will bury them together as husband and wife, and bury them together, so as to avoid solitary graves in the tombs of both men and women. On May 22, 2011, the mother of the late Korean actress Zheng dobin held a ceremony for her and Wen zuicheng.
After the engagement, if the man dies before marriage, the woman will also marry and get married. In the chapel, the dead husband and sister will hold the "God's card" and hold the wedding ceremony with the bride. Since then, the bride has kept the empty house for her whole life, which is called door-to-door and unmarried. Some women don't want to be widowed and marry another man, but people think it's a second marriage, a "broken line woman". After marriage, she will sacrifice the dead for her so-called "ex husband". The old people, out of the feelings of loving and missing their children, think that they can't choose a mate for them before they die, and they should also marry them after they die, and fulfill their responsibilities as parents. In fact, it's the emotional sustenance of people. In the old days, people generally believed in the so-called "geomancy" of the cemetery, believing that the presence of a solitary grave would affect the prosperity of the future generations of the house. At that time, some geomancers (in ancient times, they were called "Kanyu") tried their best to encourage this kind of shady marriage in order to earn more money. Yin marriage often appears in the aristocracy or the rich, and the poor rarely engage in such activities.
Yin marriage existed before the Han Dynasty. Because it costs human and material resources in society, it is meaningless and has been forbidden. "Rites of the Zhou Dynasty" said: 'it is forbidden to bury and marry the mourners. But this custom has not been eliminated, and even some of it is directly reflected in the rulers. For example, Cao Chong, Cao Cao's favorite son, died at the age of 13. Cao Cao hired the dead Miss Zhen as Cao Chong's wife and buried them together.
In Song Dynasty, Yin marriage was the most popular. According to Kang Yu's "yesterday's dream record", where unmarried men and women die, their parents must ask "ghost matchmaker" to talk about marriage, and then make divination. When they are allowed to marry in divination, they will make ghost clothes for each ghost, hold a wedding ceremony, and bury men and women together.
In the biography of the women in the Yuan Dynasty, it is recorded that 'those whose children died without a wife, or those who seek to bury their dead daughters together. "The biography of the Ming Dynasty" also contains: Yang □ died and his fiancee died; Liu Bochun died, and his employed daughter was the same, and then they were all buried together.
In the Qing Dynasty, this custom of women's sacrifice and burial was still popular with the strengthening of the concept of chastity. It was not until the feudal ethics of the late Qing Dynasty was impacted by western spiritual civilization that it gradually disappeared.
The wedding ceremony of the dead mixed the etiquette of red and white, which varied greatly according to the opinions of the parties concerned. Generally speaking, the marriage of the dead should be introduced by the matchmaker, and the two sides should pass the door and get the dragon and Phoenix post. The men's release was also to be carried out. Half of it was real damask gold and silver, half of it was all kinds of paper-based clothes, and finally it was burned at the women's door or on the grave.
In the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, there were still remnants of the custom of Yin marriage in Beijing. There were also "wedding ceremonies" in which some families were engaged in the marriage of the dead and the dead, which were called "taking bone corpses", and "bone corpses" in the families of men and women. In the early years, the wedding ceremony was mostly held at night. Sometimes, when people were sleeping soundly, they were suddenly woken up by the drumming in the streets, which turned out to be "corpses built on bones". Carrying a paper sedan chair, it is led by single drum, single number and single suona. Some don't use this kind of form, still use eight carry big sedan chair, full gold lamp deacon, originally only married a woman's picture. After the 1930s, there was also a ceremony modeled on "civilized marriage", with the Western band as the forerunner, and four people carrying a funeral booth with pictures of the bride inside.
The ceremony of Yin marriage has never been established. Although Yin marriage is regarded as a wedding ceremony, the etiquette of red and white is mixed and interlaced. To a great extent, it depends on the claims of the parties. Therefore, the form of Yin wedding instrument is very different. Generally speaking, the Yin marriage should also be introduced by the matchmaker. The two sides transfer the door post to the life hall to get the dragon and Phoenix post.
It doesn't matter whether it's big or small. Half of the gifts that the man sent to the woman were real silk ruler heads and gold and silver treasures; the other half were paper pasted leather, cotton, clips and single clothes, each with two pairs of brocade boxes, containing jewelry such as earrings, bracelets, rings and hairpins. On the night of release, burn it at the woman's door or grave During the communication, the "goose cage", "wine sea", dragon and Phoenix wedding cakes, elbows and happy fruits sent by the man to the woman are all true. Only the clothes and jewelry are paper-based artifacts.
The dowry sent by the woman is usually paper work. After it is sent to the man, it will only be displayed for half a day in front of the 'groom' photo or memorial tablet. Some dowries will only be carried around the man's yard for a week, that is, they will be sent to the nearby square for incineration by the drummer The above ceremony is not always held in Yin marriage, but the wedding ceremony is indispensable. It is rigao who builds a shed, entertains relatives and friends, and lights his sedan chair in front of the door. The house of joy is dedicated to the whole God. On the opposite Kang, there is a low table for pictures or tablets of the bridegroom. In front of it are plates of apple and Longfeng pancakes. And a large red flower, under the ribbon on the book: 'groom' words In the "boudoir" of the female side, there is a picture or memorial tablet of the "bride", as before, and there is a big red flower with a ribbon under it, and the words "bride" are written on it.
When the bridal sedan chair arrives at the woman's side, the wife will take down the 'bride' photo or the memorial tablet, and the married wife will take it over and put the precious sedan chair. At this time, the bride's father and mother have to cry loudly and chase out of the house. It's not a wedding atmosphere at all After the wedding sedan chair returned to the man's side, the married wife still took out the pictures or memorial tablets of the "bride" and put them on the altar on the Kang of the wedding room, side by side with the "groom". And tie the two photos with red head rope (take the meaning of red line drawn by the old moon), and cover them with red and yellow colored silk Only a married wife to the whole God 'hundred' incense kowtow, even if the husband and wife worship heaven and earth. Then the tea house will bring you "a cup of wine", "descendants dumplings" and "longevity noodles" for the 'newlyweds' photos or memorial tablets Such as' newlyweds' have younger brothers and sisters or younger brothers and sisters, brother-in-law and so on, that is, call them out and kowtow to photos or memorial tablets. The two families congratulated each other.
After the above ceremony, choose a good day to bury in the dirt, and the woman can wake up. According to the time appointed by Mr. Yin and Yang, after the coffin is pivoted out, immediately pour a bucket of clear water into the pit and throw down two apples. At the same time, Gao Gao raised red paper money. (it is not the same with the initiation ceremony of Yin marriage.) The man dug a hole at the side of the grave to reveal the groove of the coffin of the 'bridegroom', buried the 'bride' in the hole, and buried the 'husband and wife' together After burial, wine and fruit are displayed in front of the tomb, red paper money is burned, and a wedding ceremony is held. The father, mother and other family members (i.e. the two families) of both men and women cried and said "great joy" Since then, it has been convenient for men and women to come and go as relatives.
Ancient Yin marriage
In fact, the "ghost marriage" has not disappeared in every dynasty.
In history, the most famous marriage was arranged by Cao Cao for his early son Cao Chong. According to the records of the Three Kingdoms (Volume 20), Cao Chong, the son of Cao Cao, was ill in the 13th year of Jian'an and asked for his life. And the death, very sad. The emperor of Wen Yu Taizu, Taizu said: & lsquo; this is my misfortune, and you Cao's luck. &In order to hire the deceased daughter of Zhen's family to be buried together with him, he gave him a gift of Duwei's seal ribbon, and ordered the Marquis to serve the empress according to his son Cong. 'here, Cao Cao hired a young woman named Zhen as his daughter-in-law.
Cao Chong was born of Cao Cao and his wife Huan. Cao Chong is very intelligent and talented. When he was five or six years old, Sun Quan, the emperor of Wu, sent an elephant to Cao Cao. Cao Cao wanted to know how heavy the elephant was, but asked a lot of Ministers who couldn't figure out how to weigh it. Cao Chong said, "if you put it on a big ship and carve its water mark, you can see it by weighing things to carry them.". 'such a gifted son died in his early years, no wonder Cao Cao was extremely sad for his death, and he had to operate the secret marriage for him.
The rise of ghost marriage is related to Cao Cao's doting on his children. But there is also a saying in the folk that if we don't "marry" the unmarried, the family will be haunted and the family will be restless. In the ancient times when superstition prevailed, the underworld marriage was generally recognized by the people and became a 'legal marriage'. The two tomb owners also became 'relatives'.
In the Tang Dynasty, the underworld marriage also existed widely, which was reflected in people's strange stories. The story of "Wang Yi" in "guangyizhi" written by Tang people is like this. There was a man named Wang Yi who once passed by the gate of Li's village because of the market. I saw a 15-6-year-old girl far away, and the girl saw him. On purpose, the girl asked her maid to send word to Wang Yi and let him sleep in the villa at night. Two people meet in the middle of the night, after some lingering, the girl suddenly feel sick, a little absent-minded.
Wang Yi asked what happened. The girl had come to meet her in a tryst over the wall. When she went over the wall, her feet were punctured by the climbing teeth in the corner of the wall. It was very painful. When the girl left, she said, 'it seems that I can't live. If you really have feelings for me, you can come to my grave and comfort my soul when you pass by again in the future. 'later, Wang Yi returned to the East as an official. When passing by Li's village, I heard that the girl was really dead. So I went to sacrifice on the girl's tomb with my maidservant in private. I was very sad. After a while, the girl came out of the tomb, and Wang Yi died suddenly. The maid saw that Wang Yi's soul had entered the grave hand in hand with the girl, so the two families married in the dark.
Southern Song Dynasty
According to the book "yesterday's dream record" written by Kang Shuwen, a native of the Southern Song Dynasty, this custom was also very popular in the northern folk in the Song Dynasty. When he married a unmarried man and died in, the two media asked each other for it, which was called the ghost matchmaker. The whole family is in the form of thin sutras, each praying and divining according to his parents' orders. Deb, that is to say, subdues the underworld clothes. It is recorded in the biography of the martyrs of the Yuan Dynasty (volume 200) that there was a female Yang surname in Xucheng, Dongping, who was famous for her filial piety. After her husband Guo San went to the army, she stayed to serve her mother-in-law. In the sixth year of Zhiyuan (1269 AD), Guo San died in the battle. Yang's mother forced her daughter to remarry, and she swore in tears that she would not. After the husband's bones were sent back to the country, the father-in-law considered that his daughter-in-law was young and would have to remarry in the future, so that his son would become a bachelor in the underworld, so he planned to send someone to find a dead woman for his son to be buried together, and to do Yin marriage for him. When Yang heard about it, he became more sad and fasted for five days. Finally, he was hanged and buried with his husband. It can be seen that the influence of nether marriage in the Yuan Dynasty.
"Ghost marriage" was also popular in the period of the Republic of China. Many rich and powerful families would offer this kind of marriage to the early mourners. I once talked about the geomancy of Chiang Kai Shek's ancestral tomb. In the interview, I also learned that Chiang Kai Shek's younger brother also had a "marriage in the dark".
This is a little-known "marriage" of Chiang's family. When it comes to this, we have to account for Chiang's father. Jiang's father, Jiang zhaocong, has three sons: Jiang Jieqing, Jiang Ruiyuan and Jiang Ruiqing. Jiang Ruiyuan here is Chiang Kai-shek, that is to say, Chiang Kai-shek is the three brothers. Chiang is Chiang's half brother, Chiang's father, Chiang zhaocongdi