The Dragon Boat Festival is held on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month every year. The Dragon Boat Festival in 2017 is held on May 30, 2017.
Dragon Boat Festival is one of the ancient traditional festivals of the Chinese nation. Dragon Boat Festival is also called Duan five, Dragon Boat Festival. In addition, Dragon Boat Festival also has many other names, such as: noon day, heavy five, may day, Yulan day, daughter's day, Tianzhong day, Dila, poet's day, dragon day and so on. Although the names are different, on the whole, the customs of people's festivals are more the same than different.
The Dragon Boat Festival is a traditional custom of the Chinese people for more than 2000 years. Due to the vast area, numerous nationalities, and many stories and legends, not only many different Festival names but also different customs are produced in different places. Its contents mainly include: the daughter goes back to her mother's house, hangs the bell Kui statue, welcomes the ghost boat, hides the noon, pastes the noon leaf talisman, hangs the calamus, the wormwood, swims all kinds of diseases, wears the sachet, prepares the animal and the lily, competes the Dragon Boat, competes the martial arts, hits the ball, swings, paints the realgar to the child, drinks the realgar wine, the calamus wine, eats the five poison cake, the salted egg, the zongzi and the seasonal fresh fruit and so on. In addition to the superstitious activity which has gradually disappeared, the rest arrives Now it spreads all over China and neighboring countries. Some activities, such as dragon boat racing, have got new development, breaking through the time and geographical boundaries and becoming international sports events.
There are many theories about the origin of Dragon Boat Festival, such as: the theory of commemorating Qu Yuan; the theory of commemorating Wu Zixu; the theory of commemorating Cao E; the theory of three generations of summer solstice; the theory of driving away the evil moon and the evil day; the theory of totem sacrifice of Wu Yue nationality and so on. Each of the above says its own origin. According to the records of more than 100 ancient books and archaeological research by experts listed in the "examination of Dragon Boat Festival" and "historical education of Dragon Boat Festival" by scholar Wen Yiduo, the origin of Dragon Boat Festival is a totem festival held by the Wuyue people in ancient China, earlier than Qu Yuan. However, for thousands of years, Qu Yuan's patriotism and moving poems have been widely accepted by the people's hearts. Therefore, people 'cherish and mourn, and discuss his poems according to the world, so as to pass them on from generation to generation'. Therefore, commemorating Qu Yuan's words has the widest and deepest influence and occupies the mainstream position. In the field of folk culture, Chinese people associate dragon boat race and eating zongzi with the commemoration of Qu Yuan.
Today, Dragon Boat Festival is still a very popular grand festival among Chinese people.
The origin and legend of Dragon Boat Festival:
Dragon Boat Festival is an ancient traditional festival, which began in the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, and has a history of more than 2000 years. There are many origins and legends of the Dragon Boat Festival. Here are only four kinds:
From the memory of Qu Yuan
According to the records of history, Qu Yuan was the Minister of King Huai of Chu in the spring and Autumn period. He advocated the cultivation of talents, the prosperity of the country and the strength of the army, and advocated the alliance against Qin. He was strongly opposed by the aristocrats such as Zi Lan. Qu Yuan was slandered, expelled from the capital, and exiled to yuan and Xiang river basins. In exile, he wrote immortal poems such as Lisao, Tianwen and Jiuge, which worried about the country and the people, with unique style and profound influence (therefore, Dragon Boat Festival is also called poet Festival). In 278 BC, the Qin army conquered the capital of Chu. Qu Yuan saw his motherland was invaded and his heart was cut like a knife, but he could not bear to abandon his motherland. On May 5, after writing the masterpiece "Huaisha", he threw stones into Miluo River and died, composing a magnificent patriotic movement with his own life.
It is said that after Qu Yuan's death, the people of Chu state were in great sorrow and rushed to Miluo River to pay homage to Qu Yuan. The fishermen rowed their boats and fished for his body on the river. A fisherman took out the rice balls, eggs and other food prepared for Qu Yuan and threw them into the river "plop, plop", saying that if the fish, shrimp and crab were full, they would not bite Dr Qu. People followed suit. An old doctor took a jar of realgar wine and poured it into the river, saying it was to make Jiaolong water animals faint, so as not to hurt Dr Qu. Later, for fear that rice balls would be eaten by Jiaolong, people thought of wrapping rice with neem leaves, wrapping colorful silk outside, and developing into brown seeds.
Later, on the fifth day of May every year, there was the custom of dragon boat race, eating zongzi and drinking realgar wine to commemorate the patriotic poet Qu Yuan.
From the memory of Wu Zixu
The second legend of the Dragon Boat Festival, widely spread in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, commemorates Wu Zixu in the spring and Autumn period (770-476 BC). Wu Zixu, a famous member of the state of Chu, and his father and brother were killed by the king of Chu. Later, Zixu abandoned himself and went to the state of Wu to help Wu conquer Chu. He entered the capital of Chu in five wars. At that time, King Ping of Chu was dead. Zixu dug the tomb and whipped 300 corpses to avenge the killing of his father and brother. After the death of King Helu of Wu, his son fuchai succeeded him. The morale of the Wu army was high, winning every battle, and the state of Yue was defeated. Gou Jian, king of Yue, asked him to join him, and fuchai promised him. Zixu suggested that the state of Yue should be wiped out completely, and the master of the state of Wu would not listen to him. He was bribed by the state of Yue, slandered and framed Zixu. He believed it, and gave Zixu a sword, and Zixu died. Zixu, who was loyal and good, saw death as a return. Before he died, he said to his neighbors: 'after I died, I dug out my eyes and hung them on the east gate of the capital of Wu to see the army of the state of Yue enter the city and destroy Wu'. Then he committed suicide and died. When hearing the anger, he ordered Zixu's body to be put in leather and put into the river on May 5. Therefore, it is said that Dragon Boat Festival is also to commemorate the day of Wu Zixu.
From the memory of Cao E
The third legend of the Dragon Boat Festival is to commemorate Cao E, the filial daughter of the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 23-220), who saved her father from drowning in the river. Cao E was born in Shangyu of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Her father drowned in the river, and she did not see the body for several days. At that time, Cao E, her filial daughter, was only 14 years old, crying along the river day and night. After 17 days, he also threw himself into the river on May 5, and picked up his father's body five days later. This is a myth, and then it's passed down to the magistrate of the county, who ordered Dushan to set up a monument and let his disciple Handan Chun eulogize it.
The tomb of Cao'e, a filial daughter, is in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province. It is later said that the stele of Cao'e was written by Wang Yi of Jin Dynasty. In order to commemorate Cao'e's filial piety, Cao'e temple was built at the place where Cao'e threw herself into the river. The village she lived in was renamed as Cao'e Town, and the place where Cao'e died for her father was named as Cao'e River.
Totem sacrifice originated from ancient Yue nationality
A large number of unearthed cultural relics and Archaeological Studies in modern times have confirmed that in the vast areas of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, in the Neolithic age, there is a kind of cultural relics characterized by geometrically imprinted pottery. According to experts, the remains belong to a tribe that worships dragon totem, known as Baiyue in history. The patterns and historical legends on the unearthed pottery show that they have the custom of breaking their hair and tattooing. They live in the water town and are the descendants of the dragon. Its production tools, a large number of stone tools, but also shovel, chisel and other small pieces of bronze. In the jars and jars used as daily necessities, the imprinted pottery tripod for cooking food is unique to them and one of the symbols of their ethnic group. Until the Qin and Han Dynasties, there were still Baiyue people. Dragon Boat Festival was the festival they founded for ancestor worship. In the thousands of years of historical development, most of Baiyue people have been integrated into the Han nationality, and the rest have evolved into many ethnic groups in the south. Therefore, the Dragon Boat Festival has become the festival of the whole Chinese nation.
The custom of Dragon Boat Festival:
The Dragon Boat Festival in China is a grand folk festival, and the celebrations are also various. The more common activities are in the following forms:
Dragon boat racing is the main custom of Dragon Boat Festival. It is said that Chu people died in ancient times because they were reluctant to let Qu Yuan, a worthy minister, throw himself into the river. Many people rowed boats to catch up and rescue them. They rushed to Dongting Lake without any trace. After that, dragon boats are rowed every May 5 to commemorate it. Use dragon boats to disperse the fish in the river so as not to eat Qu Yuan's body. The custom of race was popular in Wu, Yue and Chu.
In fact, Dragon Boat Race existed as early as the Warring States period. It is a semi religious and semi entertaining program in sacrifice to carve a dragon shaped canoe and play a race game to entertain gods and people.
Later, in addition to commemorating Qu Yuan, people in different places also gave different meanings to dragon boat racing.
Dragon boat rowing in Jiangsu and Zhejiang area is of great significance to the memory of Qiu Jin, a modern female democratic revolutionary born there. On the dragon boat at night, with lights on, shuttling back and forth, water and underwater, the scene is moving and unique. The Miao people of Guizhou hold the Dragon Boat Festival from May 25 to 28 of the lunar calendar to celebrate the success of transplanting seedlings and to wish a good harvest. Dai people in Yunnan race dragon boats on the water splashing festival to commemorate the ancient hero Yan hongwo. There are different legends about dragon boat rowing among different nationalities and regions. Until now, in many areas of the south near rivers, lakes and seas, dragon boat races with their own characteristics are held every year.
In 1736, the dragon boat race was held in Taiwan. At that time, the governor of Taiwan, Jiang Yuanjun, presided over the friendship match in the half moon pool of fahua temple in Tainan. Now Taiwan holds a dragon boat race every May 5. In Hong Kong, there are also races.
In addition, dragon boat rowing has also been introduced to neighboring Japan, Vietnam and the United Kingdom. In 1980, dragon boat racing was included in the national sports events of China, and the "Quyuan Cup" dragon boat race was held every year. On June 16, 1991, the first International Dragon Boat Festival was held in Yueyang City, Hunan Province, the second hometown of Qu Yuan. Before the race, a "dragon head Festival" was held, which not only preserved the traditional ceremony but also injected new modern factors The dragon's head was carried into the Quzi temple. After the athletes' made the dragon's head 'Red' (with red belt), the chief mourner read out the sacrifice and 'opened the light' for the dragon's head (that is, light up). Then, all the people who took part in the Dragon sacrifice bowed three times, and the dragon head was carried to Guruo River and ran to the dragon boat race. More than 600000 people participated in the competition, fair and Gala, which is unprecedented. Later, Hunan held the International Dragon Boat Festival regularly. Dragon boat racing will be popular in the world.
Dragon Boat Festival eating dumplings
It is another traditional custom of Chinese people to eat Zongzi on Dragon Boat Festival. Zongzi, also known as "Jiao millet" and "tube zongzi". It has a long history and various patterns.
According to records, as early as in the spring and Autumn period, millet was wrapped with wild rice leaves (Zizania latifolia) into horn shape, which was called "Jiao millet"; rice was sealed and baked with bamboo tube, which was called "zongzi". In the last years of the Eastern Han Dynasty, millet was soaked in grey water of plants and trees. Because of the alkali content in the water, millet was wrapped in wild rice leaves to form a quadrangular shape and cooked to become an alkaline rice dumpling in Guangdong Province.
In the Jin Dynasty, zongzi was officially designated as the food for the Dragon Boat Festival. At this time, in addition to glutinous rice, the raw material of zongzi is also added with Chinese medicine Yizhiren. The cooked zongzi is called "yizhizong" According to the local records of Yueyang by the people of that time: "it is common to wrap millet in wild rice leaves, boil it with & hellip; & hellip;, and eat it from May 5 to the summer solstice. One is zongzi, the other is millet. 'in the northern and Southern Dynasties, zongzi appeared. The rice is mixed with animal meat, chestnut, jujube, red bean and so on. Zongzi is also used as a gift for communication.
In the Tang Dynasty, the rice used for zongzi was as white as jade, and its shape was cone-shaped and diamond shaped. In Japanese literature, there is a record of "Tang zongzi". In the Song Dynasty, there were already 'preserved zongzi', that is, fruit was put into zongzi. Su Dongpo, the poet, has a poem that "when I see arbutus in Zongli". At this time, there are also advertisements made of zongzi piled into pavilions, wooden cars, oxen and horses, indicating that it is fashionable to eat Zongzi in Song Dynasty. In the yuan and Ming Dynasties, the wrapping materials of zongzi changed from wild rice leaves to Ruo leaves, and then there were zongzi wrapped with reed leaves, and the additional materials were bean paste, pork, pine nuts, dates, walnuts, etc., with more varieties.
Until now, at the beginning of May every year, Chinese people have to soak glutinous rice, wash zongzi leaves and wrap zongzi, with a wide variety of designs and colors. From the perspective of stuffing, there are many packages of Beijing jujube zongzi in the north; there are many kinds of stuffing in the south, such as bean paste, fresh meat, ham, egg yolk, etc., among which Jiaxing zongzi in Zhejiang Province is the representative. The custom of eating zongzi