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How was the Old Summer Palace burned? Why rebuild the summer palace instead of the Old Summer Palace

it is reported that a fire broke out in Notre Dame de Paris on April 15. The fire was serious and spread rapidly, resulting in the collapse of the arrow spire of Notre Dame de Paris. However, firefighters came to the scene to quickly control the fire. It is said that the main structure of Notre Dame de Paris has been completely retained and can be rebuilt and repaired in the future. According to the investigation, the cause of the fire in Notre Dame de Paris may be related to the renovation project. The fire of Notre Dame in Paris has seriously damaged human civilization, which is deeply regretted by many people. But the Notre Dame fire in Paris also reminds many Chinese of the 'burning of the Old Summer Palace'. Many people wonder why the Old Summer Palace is not rebuilt? This article brings you the whole story of the burning of the Old Summer Palace and why the summer palace was rebuilt instead of the Old Summer Palace. Let's have a look. On October 18, 1860, a fire by the British and French coalition forces turned the "Old Summer Palace", known as the "garden of ten thousand gardens", into ruins. " Burning the Old Summer Palace 'has also become a disgrace to the Chinese nation. But in fact, burning the Old Summer Palace is just a customary saying. What was looted and burned at the same time was actually the Royal "three mountains and five gardens" in the western suburbs of Beijing. Among them, only Qingyi Garden was preserved because it was later repaired and renamed the summer palace, and the rest have been submerged.

It's not just the Old Summer Palace that's burning

Map of five gardens, three mountains and outer three camps by Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty

(collected by the National Library of China)

The so-called "three mountains and five gardens" refer to Wanshou mountain, Xiangshan Mountain and Yuquan mountain, as well as the Qingyi Garden (Summer Palace), Jingyi garden and Jingming garden built on these three mountains, as well as the nearby Changchun Garden and Yuanming garden. This is a series of royal gardens in the Qing Dynasty. Among them, Qingyi Garden is located in the northwest of Beijing, the west of Yuanmingyuan and the east of Yuquan mountain. In 1750, Qianlong ordered the construction of the garden. Compared with the grand glory of the Old Summer Palace, this 290 hectare garden is not very conspicuous. It is just a 'place for galloping' in the rest of Qianlong's official business.

Changchun Garden is the place where Qianlong's mother lived. The Old Summer Palace is a place where he lives and deals with national affairs. It is a political center. Qingyi Garden and Jingyi garden are connected by a canal. They are used by the emperor to relax after work. Their status is not as good as Yuanmingyuan. "

In 1860, the British and French allied forces invaded Beijing, and Emperor Xianfeng fled West for hunting. A few years ago, 39 Ba Xiali negotiators (25 British and 13 French) detained by the Qing government for negotiation and trade became an excuse for "retaliation" by the British and French coalition forces.

On October 6, the British commander ordered to enter the Old Summer Palace and loot it openly. Qingyi Garden, Changchun Garden, Jingming garden and Jingyi garden were all spared. When the British and French allied forces entered Qingyi Garden, 'there was no obstruction, and the looting was very chaotic. There are also a lot of collections here, but they are nothing compared with the Old Summer Palace. "

On October 18, the British and French allied forces began to set fire to the garden, and a series of royal gardens in the western suburbs were burned down. " More than half of the buildings in Qingyi Garden were burned down. However, many stone carved buildings and copper buildings were not destroyed, such as the 17 hole bridge, the copper Pavilion and the glazed tower in the back mountain. "

Once tried to repair the Old Summer Palace

In 1873, Emperor Tongzhi married and took office. The first decree issued by the little emperor after he took office was to rebuild the Old Summer Palace. This matter caused an uproar at the moment when the imperial court was neutral. The restoration of the Old Summer Palace was opposed by ministers at a time when money was used everywhere because of the implementation of the new policy of opening factories and schools. However, shortly after the release of the will, on the eighth day of October, more than 1000 broken walls in the Anyou palace of the Yuanmingyuan, tiantianyichun, Zhengda Guangming palace and other places had been removed.

It seems imperative to repair the Old Summer Palace. At this time, the 'Li Guangzhao' incident occurred. A man named Li Guangzhao colluded with officials of the interior government to provide inferior wood for garden repair. He committed fraud and was beheaded by Li Hongzhang. Under such circumstances, Cixi and Emperor Tongzhi had to temporarily give up the plan to repair the Old Summer Palace and repair the West Garden (North, middle and South Seas). But the idea of building a garden still lingers in Cixi's heart.

Practice 'water aerobics' in Kunming Lake

Liang Qichao once wrote an article entitled "dividing up dangerous words", in which he wrote that he went to the summer palace with his friends. When he saw that the notices of "naval yamen" were pasted on the gate of the summer palace, the people traveling with him were surprised.

The summer palace was once a 'water aerobics school'.

The heavy blow of the two Opium Wars forced the Qing government to open its eyes and take the road of becoming a powerful country through martial arts. Therefore, with the successive establishment of Fujian shipping school and Tianjin Navy School, in the 12th year of Guangxu, that is, in 1886, the Qing government established the 'water operation school' in Kunming Lake in the western suburb of Beijing, becoming the third 'Naval School' of the Qing government. At that time, the water operation school was divided into internal and external schools. The internal school studied calculation, astronomy, driving and other courses. The external school practiced water driving, array arrangement and actual firing of guns. It was an aristocratic military school for the Manchu people in the Qing Dynasty to cultivate naval talents, aiming to learn western advanced military technology. Because the water surface of Kunming Lake is wide, it is just time to exercise the Navy.

In fact, 'water exercise' is just a cover.

In 1886, the Navy yamen was established to prepare for the establishment of the Navy. The person in charge Yi Chen (Guangxu's biological father) discussed with Li Hongzhang and others to repair Qingyi Garden in the name of setting up a "water operation school." Cixi has this meaning. Yi Chen and Li Hongzhang just cater to Cixi. To build a water exercise school on Kunming Lake, the emperor naturally had to go for a review. To go for a review, he had to have a rest place, so he had to build a palace. It was in this name that Qingyi Garden was restored. "

"Why did you go to build Qingyi Garden instead of Yuanmingyuan? First, there was no money. Second, there was no large water surface in Yuanmingyuan at that time. It was not good to tell a lie for the purpose of exercising the Navy. So I chose Qingyi Garden. "

"In fact, the day when Qingyi Garden was on the beam, that is, the day when the school was about to open, it can also be seen from here that the water aerobics school was a cover."

30 million taels of silver is a rumor

Two years later, in 1888, Cixi removed the cover of the "water aerobics school". In fact, since the opening of the 'water exercise school', there have been rumors that the imperial court is repairing Qingyi Garden. " People began to say that after the Qingyi Garden was built, the west garden was built, and the Old Summer Palace would be built soon. I'm afraid it would cause another debate, and Cixi would simply make it public. "

Later projects were carried out in the name of Cixi's 60th birthday. The money was known as the Royal balance, not the appropriation from the Ministry of household.

In 1895, the restoration project of Qingyi Garden had reached the final stage. This year, during the Sino Japanese naval battle of 1894-1895, the Navy carefully established by the Beiyang navy was destroyed. Then, the naval yamen was abolished, and the "water operation school" on Kunming Lake had no source of funds. Cixi originally wanted to renovate the back of Wanshou mountain, but had to put it down because there was no naval funds to misappropriate. This year, the restoration project of Qingyi Garden was completed, It was also renamed the 'Summer Palace'. The summer palace has become the only royal garden remaining among the burned three mountains and five gardens.

Liang Qichao once mentioned in "dividing up dangerous words" that "all officials compete to play, please train the Navy, and reserve 30 million & hellip& hellip; The summer palace project is on the rise, and all the money raised is used for civil construction. "Many people think that Cixi spent 30 million taels of silver to build the summer palace.

'My research cost a total of 5-6 million liang of silver. ' Wang Daocheng said.

In 1975, Wang Daocheng was transferred from the Institute of Qing history to the cultural relics department of the summer palace to help compile the summer palace. " At that time, we could see very little information, so we went to the archives to check some original archives. " Wang Daocheng found the home collection of "style Lei" from the Beijing Library (now the National Library). " Style Lei 'was the Lei family responsible for the construction of royal gardens. After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, his descendants sold more than 200 boxes of archives about garden construction to the then Beiping library.

According to Lei jiacang's data, the 56 projects in the summer palace cost 3.16669928 yuan, three-thirds of the money. These 56 projects account for more than half of the summer palace project. According to this calculation, the construction cost of the Summer Palace should be between 5 and 6 million Liang. " (from the summer palace and the naval yamen by Wang Daocheng)

It has a very different fate from the Old Summer Palace

In 1900, the Eight Power Allied forces occupied Beijing, and the "three mountains and five gardens", including the Old Summer Palace and the summer palace, were looted again. Cixi fled to hunt. " There is nothing in other gardens. The summer palace was robbed, first by Russia, and then by German and Italian troops, who lived there for about a year. There was some damage, for example, some turrets were knocked down, but the damage was not too serious. After Cixi came back, she spent more than 200000 liang of silver to repair it. " Wang Daocheng said.

At the same time, the Old Summer Palace was declining because it was not repaired. After being looted for the second time, the Qing government has completely lost control of it. First, some bandits and hooligans burned the ancient and famous trees left in the park into charcoal and sold them for "wood looting". Then, during the period of the Beiyang government, organs and units came to the Yuanmingyuan to carry stones for building houses. "Soldiers took more than ten carts to transport Taihu stones in the park every day", which is "stone looting".

By 1975, when Wang Daocheng first went to the Old Summer Palace, the former mountain water system had been completely destroyed. " Five production teams, more than 2000 agricultural population and more than 20 residential areas. Fuhai grows rice. Dig mountains and fill lakes, raise cattle and sheep. "

In 1924, Puyi was driven out of the Forbidden City by Feng Yuxiang's troops, and the summer palace was taken over to the Peiping government. Since then, the summer palace began selling tickets and opened to the public as a park.

After the founding of new China, some parts of the summer palace became places for central leading cadres to cultivate themselves. At that time, the summer palace would also rent houses. The all China Federation of trade unions once rented houses in the summer palace for model workers to live in. " From liberation to 1961, when the state began to allocate funds, the summer palace has always been relatively poor, and renting their own houses is also an income. " Wang Daocheng said.

In 1961, the state included the summer palace in the key protected cultural relics and allocated funds for repair. In the 1980s, the summer palace began to apply for world cultural heritage. At this time, due to the perennial accumulation of silt in the Kunming Lake of the summer palace, it is no longer the situation of lakes and mountains in the past. Therefore, a large-scale desilting project was carried out in 1989.

On December 2, 1998, through the review of UNESCO, the summer palace entered the world heritage list.

[article from]

Hebei Youth Daily