today is World Autism day on April 2, which calls on people to pay attention to caring for autistic children. Autism is a common mental disease in children. In recent years, the prevalence of autism in children has become higher and higher, which has not only caused great trouble and burden to many families, but also had a serious adverse impact on children's growth and life. Therefore, we need to correctly understand autism (Note: autism has been renamed autism spectrum disorder), care for children with autism, and patiently help and guide them. So what are the high-risk factors and characteristics of autism? What are the symptoms of children with autism? The purpose of this article is to take you to understand autistic children.
The incidence rate of autism spectrum disorders is 1.4% in the United States, 4.5 times for boys, and incidence rate for Asia is 1-2%.
High risk factors and characteristics of autism spectrum disorders
The incidence rate of identical twins is 36-95%, and the incidence rate of one child in one family is 2-18%.
☆ 10% of children with autism spectrum disorders have genetic diseases;
☆ mental retardation is related to autism spectrum disorder (less than half of patients have normal intelligence);
☆ older parents will increase the probability of children's illness;
☆ premature infants and low birth weight infants are more prone to high incidence;
☆ autism spectrum disorder is easy to coexist with other developmental disorders.
How to diagnose whether a child has autism?
Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder, which can cause serious social, communication and behavior disorders. Some patients may have no difference in appearance from normal children, but their communication, dealing with people, behavior and learning ability are significantly different from normal people. Their cognitive, thinking and problem-solving abilities may range from super smart to completely incompetent. Some children need permanent close care, others have good self-care ability.
It is not easy to diagnose autism spectrum disorder, because there is no blood test to diagnose autism. Doctors rely on children's behavior and development assessment for diagnosis.
The screening tools are M-CHAT and stat. the former is used for screening from 18 months to 24 months, and the latter is used for screening from 24 months to 36 months. The American Academy of Pediatrics requires all pediatricians to conduct routine autism screening at the age of 18 and 24 months. Those suspected need to go to a specialist for further diagnosis. Development assessment should be done at each physical examination. Early diagnosis and treatment of autism is the key to determine the prognosis of children. The Chinese version of these screening tools and instructions can be found online.
Symptoms of autism spectrum disorders
He doesn't use his hand to indicate what he is interested in;
Don't look at what others signal him to see;
Not interested in others and not dealing with others;
Avoid looking at each other and want to stay by yourself;
Do not understand other people's feelings or express their own feelings;
Don't like to be hugged or close, or hug when you want to;
When others speak to him, they don't respond, but they respond to some sounds;
Don't know how to talk, play or build relationships when you are interested in some people;
Only repeat other people's lists or phrases, not a whole sentence;
Do not use normal language or action to express themselves;
Can't play imaginary games, such as playing house;
Repeat the same action;
Unable to adapt to any routine changes in life;
Different reactions to taste, smell, appearance and sound;
Lose a learned skill, such as speaking.