Why is there haze in winter? How to protect it in winter?
Sihai network: why is there no haze in summer? Why is there haze in winter? In winter, a large amount of coal is burned to release a large amount of smoke and waste heat, and the temperature inversion occurs in the vertical direction of the atmosphere; the vertical movement of the air in the low altitude of the atmosphere is limited, the atmosphere is relatively stable and adverse, and the pollutants are dispersed.
The higher the buildings are built in the city, the stronger the block and friction make the wind flow weaken obviously. The increase of calm wind is not conducive to the diffusion and dilution of aerosols in the atmosphere, and it is easy to accumulate around urban and suburban areas; the increase of aerosols in the air. With the growth of urban population, industrial development and the sharp increase of motor vehicles, the emission of pollutants and suspended solids increase greatly, which directly leads to the reduction of visibility. So it is easy to appear haze in winter.
The cold winter has come to us. Besides the cold and dry, there is another serious problem -- haze. Recently, many provinces in North China have seen a wide range of haze weather, some of which have even seriously interfered with people's work and life. We believe that we all know the impact of haze on us, so we need to do a good job of comprehensive protection compared with the continuous haze weather.
wear a mask
Haze weather is harmful to human respiratory system. This is because haze is not conducive to the diffusion of pollutants in the air, coupled with low fog weather, poor air circulation, the increase of inhalable micro dust and other reasons, these pollutants will stimulate the respiratory tract, cause cough and other discomfort, thus inducing diseases such as laryngitis, tracheitis, conjunctivitis and so on. At the same time, inhalable particles, sulfur dioxide and other pollutants in foggy days are the main factors inducing asthma and chronic bronchitis. Therefore, it is necessary to wear a mask when going out in haze weather, but it is also necessary to wear a mask.
① There are four kinds of masks.
But at present, only N95 / n99 mask is the most effective one to prevent haze particles and all kinds of germs. This mask, certified by NIOSH, can effectively block 95% of PM2.5 particles, as well as bacteria and viruses. And cotton masks, gauze masks, etc. can not block the dust of small particles, some even the coarse particles can not be filtered, which is not suitable for anti haze wearing.
However, it is worth noting that the N95 mask is easy to cause dyspnea and uncomfortable breathing. For patients with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, it is better to consult the doctor before wearing it.
② How to wear mask correctly.
Many people don't know how to wear the mask correctly. They think it's unnecessary to worry about covering the nose and mouth. In fact, there are many precautions. For the use of general masks, the size of the masks must be suitable, and the wearing method must be correct, so that the masks can be effective. Masks on the market are generally divided into rectangular and cup-shaped. The rectangular mask must have a structure of at least three layers of paper to have a protective effect. Users need to press the wire on the bridge of the nose, and then spread the whole mask along the bridge of the nose to play a role.
Experts from the respiratory department said that before wearing the mask, you should wash your hands, then take out the mask in an independent small packaging bag, fasten the rope of the fixed mask first, and tie the headband to the back of the head and neck respectively, so that the mask is close to the face, and the mask should completely cover the nose and chin. Take the medical mask as an example. There is a flexible metal strip on the top. After wearing it, you should press the metal strip with your fingers to make the mask close to both sides of the nose and the cheek, and then pull the lower edge of the mask by hand to make it fit the chin. Many people wear masks at will. They often expose their nostrils outside the masks, or hang the masks on their chin or ears. These methods are wrong. The position of the mask should be under the orbit, which can cover the nose and mouth, so as to play a corresponding role. If the mask is hung on the chin and ears, it is easy to make the inner layer of the mask contaminated with dust and bacteria, but it does not play a health care role of the mask.
③ Mask cleaning is important.
A pair of masks should not be used for too long. Disposable medical masks should be replaced every day instead of being reused. Reusable masks should be cleaned every day. Masks shall not be worn on each other. They must be specially assigned to avoid cross infection. In case of damage, dirt, moisture or poor breathing, the mask should be replaced immediately. It is safer to boil and clean the used mask with water. Cleaning masks can be rubbed with soap, then rinsed with water, and then exposed to the sun, which can play a role in sterilization. It can also be rubbed with soap, rinsed with water, and then put into the microwave oven for two minutes for disinfection.
In addition, some people's masks have been moistened by heat, saliva, etc., but they still insist on wearing them. You should know that the masks that have been moistened have poor air permeability, and the function of blocking bacteria will also be reduced. After wearing the mask, avoid touching the mask to avoid reducing the protection.
Wear hat and long clothes
When the toxic chemicals in the air are mixed with the scalp oil, it will cause the pore blocking damage, directly affect the health of the hair, and easily induce hair loss. Therefore, it is recommended to wear a hat and hair care when going out in haze. In addition to hair, nose and mouth, the less exposed other parts are, the better. Scarves and long clothes are necessary to wear when going out, which can play a protective role.
Tips men living in polluted environments are more likely to go bald, according to a study by the University of London. Researchers from the University of London collected hair follicles of bald men's heads and observed them in the laboratory. They found that this stage of hair growth was disrupted by oxidation, which was exacerbated by smoking and air pollution, destroying hair follicles.
Outdoor travel suggestions' short, smooth and fast '
It is very necessary to reduce the time of outdoor activities in haze weather. Stop for a short time, breathe peacefully and walk fast. Try not to exercise in haze weather, because the damage of pollution to the whole body system far exceeds the benefits of two days of physical exercise. When extreme haze weather occurs, you can carry out various indoor training, and also play a corresponding exercise purpose.
Wash your face, wash your hands and clean your nose before entering the house
There are three things to do when entering the room in a haze day: wash your face, rinse your mouth and clean your nose. It is better to wash your face with warm water, which can effectively clean the haze particles attached to your skin. The purpose of mouthwash is to remove the dirt attached to the mouth.
The most important thing is to clean the nasal cavity. When cleaning the nasal cavity, you must gently absorb water to avoid choking. Especially when cleaning the nasal cavity for children, parents can dip a clean cotton swab in water and wash it repeatedly.
Open the window skillfully
In winter, in order to keep the indoor air circulation, we still need to open windows regularly, but how to open them needs to be a little bit exquisite. In winter, it is necessary to be able to open windows and ventilate every day to keep the indoor air fresh unless there is a very serious day of haze. It is better to open windows in the morning, afternoon and evening for ventilation once a day, and the ventilation time for each time should be 15 to 30 minutes.
① You also need to choose when to open the window. If possible, you can prepare a PM2.5 monitoring device at home, and choose to open the window at a time when the PM2.5 concentration is relatively low. If there is no equipment, only through visual inspection, try to open the window when the pollution concentration is relatively small. It should be reminded that if the home is close to the urban road, it is better to avoid opening windows in the early and late peak hours. At this time, the road is congested, and automobile exhaust will cause poor air quality. Studies have shown that 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. are relatively good times for air quality, and windows can be opened as appropriate.
② In case of severe haze, the window opening time shall be minimized. Conditional families can choose air purifier, but if the air purifier does not have the function of exchange and circulation with outdoor air, it is necessary to open the window regularly while opening the air purifier.
③ For the elderly, the time of opening the window should not be too long, it is better not to exceed half an hour, otherwise, the elderly may get sick because of the sudden drop in temperature. If the indoor air conditioner is turned on, you can put a basin of warm water in the room to keep the indoor air moist.
Indoor exercise has skills
① You can do more physical exercises. You can choose to do some strength exercises in the indoor gym, burn fat, reduce weight and promote metabolism by increasing muscle. Moreover, these exercises do not consume much oxygen, which helps to protect the heart and lungs from air pollution. It should also be noted that a well ventilated gymnasium must be chosen, otherwise, too many people in the room will make the air dirty.
② You can choose mild antagonistic exercise. Gym sports are boring. We can also choose some interesting activities. For example, we can find a few friends to play basketball, badminton and table tennis in the bigger gym. We can take group games to fight against each other. If we lose the game, we will have a rest, so that the amount of sports will not be too large.
③ You can do some exercises to exercise your heart and lung function. Young people with good physical fitness can choose to climb stairs in the corridor or swim in the swimming pool if they feel that the amount of exercise is not enough. These places will not have serious outdoor air pollution, but they can greatly improve the amount of exercise.
④ You can choose some flexible sports. Do exercises, Taijiquan, yoga, Pilates, etc. at home to improve physical endurance. Although you don't need to run and jump up and down, you can fully exercise your muscles.
⑤ Doing housework properly is also a kind of exercise. In life, it's not only physical exercise, do more housework, but also exercise. For example, mop the floor, wipe the dust, wash the clothes by hand, which can also make the body get better exercise.
⑥ No matter men, women, old and young, whether at home or at work, you can climb the stairs in your spare time. For young people, climbing the stairs for 7 minutes can burn 100 calories and achieve the goal of weight loss. For the middle-aged and old people, the speed of climbing stairs slows down, which can exercise cardiopulmonary function.
A recent study published in the American Journal of epidemiology found that the risk of never smokers dying from lung cancer in the population exposed to low PM2.5 was 14 / 100000 per year, that is, 14 people died in an average of 100000 per year. For smokers, the number has doubled a dozen times: 192 / 100000. The mortality of non-smokers and smokers exposed to high PM2.5 was 18 / 100000 and 227 / 100000, respectively.
According to the above data, it is not difficult to see that long-term smoking and high PM2.5 content are important factors leading to lung cancer. However, when the two factors exist at the same time, the risk of death due to lung cancer is not simply the sum of the relationship, but after the sum multiplied by 2.2.
Therefore, it is recommended that smokers give up smoking immediately. Even if the plan of quitting smoking can not be completed immediately, we should reduce going out on haze days and avoid smoking in haze days. People who do not smoke, especially those with respiratory function problems, such as asthma, COPD and other respiratory diseases, should be away from haze and