The recent failure of the European Space Agency's Schiaparelli mission proves that a successful landing on Mars is not easy. In Mars' thin atmosphere, slowing down from thousands of kilometers per hour is obviously more complicated than entering the dense earth. NASA has successfully sent the opportunity and spirit probes to Mars, but the landing of curiosity is more complicated. Both opportunity and courage are small, while curiosity is much larger. According to NASA, the curiosity probe is the same size as an off-road vehicle and is as high as a professional basketball player. But curiosity's ability to crawl is stronger, and it can climb 45 degree slopes, which means it passes through more rugged terrain on the surface of Mars. Curiosity's mission was originally scheduled for 90 days, but four years later, it is still testing and sending valuable information back to earth.
The voyager-1 and voyager-2 probes launched in 1977 each carry a gold-plated copper CD with the name card "voice of the earth". This gold CD carries the mission of human communication with the cosmic galaxy. The record includes natural sounds such as wind, rain, thunder, waves, whale calls, frog calls, blessing sentences in 55 languages and classic songs from all over the world. In addition, the team behind the scenes recorded an hour long human brain wave on the record, and another 115 images in various formats. The gold records are stored in an aluminum protective case with a record player, hands and instructions on how to play them. The Voyager probe may take 40000 years to get close to the nearest star. As Sakya said, "only when we meet a more advanced space civilization will these probes be captured and records be played. But sending a drifting bottle to the ocean of the universe and explaining life on earth may lead to optimistic results. "
Adding earth markers to space probes is nothing new. On both Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 probes, crafts for alien identification are included. Each detector has a fixed gold-plated handicraft, which is painted with graphic information, describing the scene of a man and a woman standing in front of the spacecraft. The man's hand was raised to show his kindness. On the left side of the picture are charts describing the solar system, spaceships and their trajectories. The larger space compass can help aliens determine the origin of spaceships. In the middle are 15 radiations to help calculate the distance. The relative distance between the sun and nearby pulsars can be represented by 14 lines, and the last line represents the distance between the sun and the center of the galaxy.
Voyager 1 has attracted a lot of attention because it carries gold records. In addition, this detector has won the incomparable glory of other detectors. In August 2012, it flew out of the solar system and was exploring interstellar space. What's more shocking is that Voyager 1 is still sending data to mission control team through deep space network. Voyager 2, which has started to leave the sun sheath at a speed of 56000 km / h, is still in contact with the mission control team. Even if Voyager 1's radioisotope thermoelectric generator runs out of fuel by 2025, it could theoretically continue to fly in the universe for thousands of years. Travelers may roam the galaxy forever, the mission team said.
Ham, the gorilla, is the first primate to enter space. It and five other so-called "gorilla astronauts" were trained in New Mexico and Florida to identify the psychological and physiological effects of space flight on humans. Ham was trained to respond to flashing lights by pulling various levers, which allowed researchers to compare its results in space and on the ground. On January 31, 1961, ham put on his spacesuit and launched into sub orbit at Cape Canaveral launch site in Florida. It flies at a speed of 8000 kilometers per hour and reaches the highest altitude of 240 kilometers above the earth. Ham's capsule then returned to earth. Unfortunately, due to the failure of flight coordinates, its capsule deviated from its course and fell into the Atlantic Ocean. Ham was rescued safely and performed normally for the next three hours. Ham experienced a total of six minutes of weightlessness in space. It's worth noting that his test reaction time is lower than on earth. Three months after Ham's space flight, astronaut Alan Shepard took off on the mercury spacecraft, becoming the first American to enter space. Shepard was hailed as a hero in New York and Washington, while ham was awarded an apple and half an orange.
On November 16, 974, the SETI project led by Carl Sagan and Frank Drake released the famous Arecibo message. The message came from its radio telescope of the same name, pointing to the spherical Galaxy Messier 13, which is 22000 light-years away from the earth. So, how is this message sent? The message itself is made up of 1679 binary digits. When these binary numbers are displayed in the form of a grid, it presents an image. This image can vividly depict life on earth. This information mainly consists of seven key parts, including the introduction of our digital system, the number of elements and atoms that are crucial to life on earth, the double helix structure of human DNA, and the basic description of the solar system. But even if the life in Messier 13 can receive this message, it will take us 44000 years to decode and reply to it. But in any case, Arecibo information is much more vivid than the "cold call" in the universe.
Life on the international space station is certainly not suitable for people suffering from claustrophobia. There is no space for cluttered things, and suitsat is no exception. It looks like a spacesuit worn by astronauts on a spacewalk, but actually there is no one inside. The Russian Orlan spacesuit has reached its life expectancy, but it occupies valuable space on the space station. For this reason, astronauts made the decision that any normal person would make: to pack it up and throw it to earth. The problem is solved! But the astronauts didn't want to waste it. They installed three batteries, a radio transmitter and multiple sensors in the spacesuit to monitor its changes in orbit and when it entered the earth. By doing so, the astronauts created a fully functional satellite. Suitsat can fly in earth orbit for months and then burn down in the earth's atmosphere. On the ground, it looks like a meteor, very beautiful.
Guns are nothing new in outer space. For decades, astronauts often carry pistols or even three shotguns on missions. These weapons are not used to fight the enemy, but are stored in orbit. When returning to earth, these guns provide the astronauts with self-defense capability when they land in the wilderness waiting for rescue. On the other hand, some weapons are specially designed for use in space. The almaz space station was launched into the mini military space station in 1974. In order to ensure the safety of space facilities in other orbits, the former Soviet Union installed rapid fire guns in the space station. Tests on earth show that the rapid fire gun can accurately hit targets 3200 meters away, and can fire 5000 bullets at 2400 km / h. However, there is a clear flaw in the overall design of the weapon: it has no independent operating shaft, but is installed in the space station. This means that in order to aim at the target, the personnel in the space station must first move a 20 ton weapon to find the right design angle. Fortunately, the former Soviet Union never used this weapon against hostile targets. Just when the space station returned to earth, they tested several bullets for fun. On January 24, 1975, the former Soviet Union fired 20 shots through remote control.
The Hubble Space Telescope is named after Dr. Edwin Hubble, who is a pioneer in astronomy. His "Hubble constant" theory laid the foundation for the "Big Bang" theory. The Hubble Space Telescope weighs 14 tons, about the length of a school bus. Since the beginning of the Hubble project in 1990, it has made 1.2 million observations of the universe, with an eye distance of 13.4 billion light years. From a wide-angle view of distant nebulae to a close-up of the spectacular collapse of comets, the Hubble telescope provides the most spectacular view of the universe to date. During the mission, the Hubble telescope has traveled 4.8 billion kilometers in low earth orbit. Hubble's successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, was recently assembled and will take on a larger mission when it is launched in 2018.
Sihai inventory special statement: the content of this article comes from the system editing or netizen sharing contribution. This article is for entertainment only. We are not responsible for the integrity, reliability and authenticity of the content. If the Department has a source, the copyright belongs to the original author. For related questions, please contact wechat: ww4hw