Cantonese opera, also known as "Guangdong opera" or "grand opera", is one of the traditional operas of the Han nationality. It originates from southern opera and is popular in the areas inhabited by Cantonese people such as Lingnan. Since the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty, it has appeared in Guangdong and Guangxi. It is a performance art combining chorus, music, stage costumes and abstract forms. Each profession of Cantonese opera has its own unique costume.
Cantonese opera was listed in the first batch of 518 national intangible cultural heritage list published on May 20, 2006. On September 30, 2009, Guangdong opera was confirmed by UNESCO and included in the intangible cultural heritage list of mankind.
Chaozhou Opera, also known as Chaozhou Opera, Chaoyin opera, chaodiao, Chaozhou white characters (white characters at the top) and chaoqu, are mainly popular in Chaoshan area of Guangdong Province (Chaozhou, Huilai, Shantou, Jieyang, Puning, Chenghai, Chaoyang, Raoping, Fengshun, Lufeng, etc.) and the south of Fujian Province (Zhaoan, Dongshan, Yunxiao, Zhangpu, etc.) and overseas Southeast Asian countries (mainly Vietnam, Thailand, Singapore, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia and other countries), France and other areas inhabited by Chaozhou people are an ancient opera performed in Chaozhou language.
Huachao opera, one of the Hakka operas of Han nationality in Guangdong Province, is a folk opera of Han nationality born and bred in Zijin Mountain area. It originated from the sacrificial ceremony of "shenchao" in Zijin County. It was sung in Hakka language and popular in the eastern and northeastern Hakka areas of Guangdong Province.
Its distinctive feature is the organic combination of folk music language and folk literature language. The singing is simple and vigorous, popular and easy to sing; the lyrics and dialogues often use witty and meaningful puns and allegorical sayings, vivid and easy to understand; the performance is full of songs and dances, and the atmosphere is warm. It is loved by the masses.
Guangdong Han Opera, formerly known as "Luantan", "Waijiang opera" and "Xingmei Han Opera", is one of the Hakka operas of the Han nationality in Guangdong Province. In 1933, Qian re Chu, a native of Dapu County, Guangdong Province, named it Han Opera. From then on, it was established by convention and has been called Han Opera. It is popular in Meizhou, Huizhou, Shaoguan and other border areas of Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi. Guangdong Han Opera is one of the three major operas in Guangdong Province, which is praised as "the peony of the South" by Premier Zhou.
Guangdong Han Opera actually comes from Huixi opera after the confluence of PI Huang and Western Fujian Han Opera, which is mainly composed of xipi Erhuang and sung in Zhongzhou Mandarin. From Yongzheng to Qianlong in Qing Dynasty, Huizhou opera was introduced into Guangdong Province. The performance of Guangdong Han Opera is similar to Beijing opera, Hunan opera, Qi opera and Hubei Han Opera, but it also has its own characteristics and styles. Its martial arts belong to the southern school. There are more than 100 kinds of facial makeup, mainly black, red and white. Black symbolizes bravery, red symbolizes loyalty, white and cyan symbolize insidious and treacherous. The main singing style of Guangdong Han Opera is pi Huang. It also contains Kunqu Opera, Gaoqiang, chuqiang, minor, etc., and many ancient Qupai are preserved. Simple and honest, high and solemn and stirring are the inherent style characteristics of Guangdong Han Opera music. His roles are divided into nine parts: Gongjiao, Laosheng, Xiaosheng, laodan, Zhengdan, Huadan, Hongjing, Wujing, ugjiao. Its accompaniment instruments are also quite distinctive. Touxian, Dasu Luos and bugle are unique accompaniment instruments of Guangdong Han Opera. There are more than 800 traditional operas of Guangdong Han Opera. The more famous ones are bailixi's wife recognition, the king of Qi's quest for generals, and the modern drama a bag of wheat seeds.
On June 7, 2008, Guangdong Han Opera was approved by the State Council to be included in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
Zhengzi opera, also known as Zhengyin opera, is named after Zhongzhou Mandarin (Minnan and Chaozhou are called "Zhengyin" or "Zhengzi") and are popular in Haifeng, Lufeng, Chaoshan, Fujian and Taiwan provinces. Formed in the Xuande period of the Ming Dynasty, it is a branch of the Southern Drama of the yuan and Ming Dynasties. It has a history of more than 500 years. There are mainly two kinds of tunes: Zhengyin and Kunqu, and some miscellaneous and minor tunes. The accompaniment instrument "zhengyinqu" is mainly composed of large orchestral strings made of Agave shell, accompanied by three strings and bamboo strings; Kunqu Opera and zaqu are mainly composed of flute and suona. The traditional plays are divided into two categories: literary drama and martial opera. After liberation, the repertoires reorganized and adapted have great influence on Huaiyin farewell, hundred flowers presenting sword, ancient city meeting and Zhang Fei returning home.
On May 20, 2006, it was approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
One of the three rare operas in Shanwei City, Guangdong Province, Xiqin opera, also known as Luantan opera, is one of the traditional operas of Han nationality. In the Ming Dynasty, the Qinqiang opera from Northwest China flowed into Shanwei City and combined with local folk art. At the beginning of Qing Dynasty, the local opera of Shanwei City in Guangdong Province was formed, and the Qinqiang opera from the western region was referred to as "Xiqin opera". Singing in Haifeng Mandarin belongs to the system of plate changing body. The main aria is the main line, xipi Erhuang, etc. The main tune is the main tune, which is the authentic tune; xipi Erhuang is basically the same as Cantonese Opera and Han Opera, which was later absorbed. In the light years of the Qing Dynasty, Huang Zongdao, a Ju Ren in Shanwei City, wrote a Zhuzhi Ci that "the best pear garden is the Western Qin Dynasty"; in the Xianfeng Period, when Chaozhou rebuilt the Tian Marshal temple, there was a Leshi inscription in which Xi Qin opera participated. Chaozhou urban and rural areas in the late Qing Dynasty, there are western Qin Opera Hall. During the period of the Republic of China, Xiqin opera was still widely performed in Chaoshan, but only Haifeng had a professional Xiqin Opera Troupe. Chaozhou, Jieyang and Shantou in Chaoshan area were no longer seen.  Up to now, it is only popular in Shanwei City, Guangdong Province (formerly known as hailufeng). There are more than 1000 traditional plays in the play, which are very popular with the audience.
On May 20, 2006, Xiqin opera was approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
Leiju opera, formerly known as dagongban, is popular in Leizhou ethnic circle. It is a wonderful art flower loved by people and sung by everyone. It has strong and distinctive local characteristics.
Lei opera originated from Leizhou song. It took more than 300 years to form a variety of operas through four stages of development: girl song, persuading song, Daban song and Lei opera. In recent years, through the continuous exploration and reform of Lei opera workers, Lei opera has more than 80 tones.
Zhanjiang is the hometown of Lei opera. Leizhou opera is rooted in Leizhou Peninsula. It is more and more loved by Leizhou people because its language is easy to understand and can reflect the real life.
In 2011, it was selected into the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
Tea Picking Opera in northern Guangdong
The Tea Picking Opera in northern Guangdong is a small drama drama of Han nationality in northern Guangdong of Guangdong. Formerly known as singing lantern, singing flower drum, Tea Picking Opera, big tea or "three feet class", it was the main folk opera created by the folk art essence of Gannan and Yizhou in Hunan on the basis of Han Folk Lantern song and dance. The origin of wandering can be traced back to the Tang and Song dynasties. The performance of "three legged Troupe", also known as "singing flower drum" or "singing lantern", has a lively and lively music style, accompanied by gongs, drums and orchestras. The singing music is mainly composed of folk rap and folk music of local folk songs in Jiangjiang. The singing is divided into tea Picking Opera, lantern tune and minor, which are divided into North and South due to different tuning strings. The singing structure is basically composed of Qupai and later used in double Now 150 traditional plays will be collected. Among them, mending shoes, dressing eyebrows, and A-San opera Lord are the traditional operas that have been performed for a long time and loved by the public.
It is popular in Shaoguan in the north of Guangdong Province, Meixian (now Meizhou) and Huiyang in the East. The original Nanxiong DengZi, shaonan opera and Lianyang diaozi gradually merged after 1950. In 1959, they were called Tea Picking Opera in northern Guangdong.
In 2009, Wuhua Tea Picking Opera was selected as the provincial intangible cultural heritage protection list.
Lechang Huagu Opera
Lechang Huagu opera is a kind of folk opera of the Han nationality in Guangdong Province. It originated from the folk song and dance stage performed in the enclosure of Lechang county (later changed to Lechang City). Lechang Huagu opera, commonly known as "singing flower drum" or "tiaozixi", originated from the lantern singing and dancing of Lechang people in enclosed fields - "stepping on the low stage", is a kind of folk opera of Han nationality loved by local people. The materials of the local myths and legends are drawn from the local social life. The music originates from the local folk songs, minor and miscellaneous tunes. It is distinguished from the South and North roads by the use of melody couplets, supplemented by some plate changes. Performing art is known as "small, laugh, live" and "no ugly, no drama". The system was originally one ugly, once upon a time, and then gradually developed into three lines of Sheng, Dan and Chou, as well as the four major trades of Shengdan, Chou and Jing, as well as various roles of different styles. The main musical instruments are Tiaohu (also known as "Datong"), Huagu, Tangluo, Rao cymbal, suona, etc. In April 2012, Lechang Huagu opera was successfully selected into the fourth batch of provincial intangible cultural heritage list of Guangdong Province.
White opera in western Guangdong
Baixi opera in western Guangdong, commonly known as baixizai, is one of the operas of Han nationality in Guangdong Province. It was originally a puppet show sung by Baihuo in western Guangdong. Because it is often performed in Anpu and its singing form is different from that of other opera troupes, it is called Anpu Baixi. Later, it was renamed "West Guangdong white opera". It is popular in Lianjiang, Suixi and Hepu of Guangxi Province.
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