Magnolia, also known as magnolia, Wangchun, magnolia flower;
It is a deciduous tree, native to the central provinces of China, now cultivated in Beijing and the south of the Yellow River Basin. The flowers are white to lavender red. The flowers are big and fragrant. The Corolla is like a cup. When the flowers bloom, there are no or few leaves. It is a famous flower in China. Now it's time for Xiaobian to enjoy its blooming.
1、 Growth habit
Yulan likes light and is hardy. It can overwinter in the open. Love dry, avoid low humidity, planting soil waterlogging easy rot root. It likes fertile, well drained and slightly acidic sandy soil. It can also grow on weak alkaline soil. In the south where the temperature is higher, it can blossom from December to January of the following year. Magnolia had strong resistance to harmful gases.
2、 Variety introduction
Varietal spring flower（ var.purourescens ）The flowers are light red inside and purplish red on the surface.
Similar species are: M. amoena, endangered, with red or pink pollen and green twigs, native to Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province.
M. zenii, native to Baohua mountain in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, has white flowers in the upper part, purple veins in the lower part and purple branchlets.
M. sieboldii has white flowers, long stalked flowers, obovate round leaves, and white powder and pubescence on the back of leaves.
3、 Detailed introduction of planting
1 environment selection
Magnolia likes light, young trees are more shade resistant, not resistant to strong light and western sun, too strong or western sun, easy to make trees burn.
Magnolia grandiflora can be planted in the side of the environment to block the light, but planted under the trees or in the shade, the growth is poor, the tree shape is thin and small, the branches are sparse, the leaves are small and yellow, and there are no flowers or flowers;
It is resistant to cold and short-term low temperature of - 20 ℃, but it is not suitable to be planted at the tuyere, otherwise it is easy to strip. In Beijing area, it can survive the winter safely in the open field without winding and other measures;
Yulan likes fertile, moist and well drained slightly acid soil, but it can also grow normally in mild saline alkali soil; Magnolia is fleshy root, afraid of ponding, planting in low-lying areas is easy to rot roots and cause death; Magnolia planting soil permeability is also good, planting in clay soil is poor, growing in Sandy loam and yellow sand soil is the best.
2. Attention to planting
Magnolia is not tolerant to transplanting. It is ideal to transplant Magnolia grandiflora 10 to 15 days before germination or when the flower just withers and leaves are not developed. The seedlings should be watered once every 4 to 5 days before the seedlings are raised. This can not only make the plants absorb enough water, but also help the soil to form balls when digging seedlings.
The root system should be injured as little as possible, and the cut must be smooth to facilitate wound healing.
Note: no matter how large the size of the seedlings should be with soil ball, the diameter of the soil ball should be 8 ~ 10 times of the seedling ground diameter, not too small. The earth ball should be tied with straw rope after digging.
3 Soil selection
The tree pit should be dug well before planting. The tree pit should be large rather than small. If the tree pit is too small, it is not only difficult to plant, but also not conducive to root growth. The soil at the bottom of tree pit should be mature soil. If the soil is too sticky or the salt content exceeds the standard, the soil should be replaced or improved.
The permeability of cultivated soil must be good, the soil fertility must be sufficient, enough nutrients should be supplied to plants, and there should be no impurities such as bricks, tiles and lime in the soil.
4 planting techniques
The planting depth should be appropriate. Generally speaking, the planting depth can be slightly higher than the original soil ball by 2-3 cm. If it is too deep, it is easy to produce dull buds. If it is too shallow, the tree roots will be exposed and easily blown down by the wind. Large size seedlings should be set up in time, the support can be triangular support, to prevent being tilted by wind.
After planting, it should be watered immediately. After 3 days of watering, 2 water should be poured, 5 days later, 3 water should be poured. After three water, normal management can be carried out. If the seedlings have flower buds, they should be cut off to prevent flowering and fruiting, consuming a lot of nutrients and affecting the survival rate.
Yulan is neither waterlogged nor drought tolerant, so the principle of "loving dampness and fearing waterlogging" should be strictly followed in cultivation and maintenance. In the process of cultivation and maintenance, many people think that Yulan is afraid of waterlogging, so it should be watered as little as possible. This understanding and practice is very wrong, because magnolia is afraid of waterlogging, which does not mean loving drought. It likes humid environment. In terms of water management, we should master the degree that the soil can not be too dry or too wet.
In the maintenance process, the newly planted Magnolia should keep the soil moist, which is also an important measure to ensure its survival rate.
The green water in early spring and anti freezing water in early winter are indispensable, and they should be poured thoroughly. In the growing season, water can be poured once a month. In rainy season, watering should be stopped. After rain, timely drainage should be carried out to prevent root rot caused by ponding. In addition, soil loosening should be carried out in time to protect soil moisture.
Note: in rainy season and drought period, timely irrigation is also required. Water shortage not only affects the vegetative growth of plants, but also causes bud abscission or atrophy, affecting the next year's flowering.
If Magnolia grandiflora planted in the environment with poor soil, large hardening area and small green space area, the root watering should also be carried out in high temperature and drought weather. The atomization degree should be paid attention to. The higher the atomization degree is, the better the effect is. The best spraying time is before 8:00 a.m. and after 6:00 p.m., and can not be carried out when the light is strong at noon.
Yulan, which suffered from waterlogging, should be rescued as soon as possible. The accumulated water should be removed in time. The tree should be shaded, especially to prevent the western sun. Some leaves and buds should be cut off.
When planting, the base fertilizer should be applied every year. It is easy to have more buds, large flowers and long flowering period.
Fertilization is applied four times a year, with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer applied once before flowering; phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer is applied once in July and August to promote flower bud differentiation; before winter, combined with watering winter water, the fertilizer can not only improve soil activity, but also increase the amount of fertilizer. 2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution was sprayed on the leaves to effectively enhance the tree type.
7 winter maintenance
Although magnolia can tolerate low temperature of - 20 ℃, winter management should be strengthened for small-sized Magnolia and Magnolia planted in the same year. In addition to pouring enough frozen water after falling leaves in mid and late November, tree pits should also be covered with grass, plastic film or soil, and the tree body can be whitewashed to prevent spring stripping. The Magnolia which has been planted for many years can only be treated with anti freezing water and white coating.
4、 Pest control
Magnolia grandiflora is a tree species with strong disease resistance, and a few of them have anthracnose, chlorosis and leaf burn.
In summer, high temperature and high humidity period is the peak period. Plant water and fertilizer management is not in place, airtight, growth decline is very prone to this disease.
Control methods: strengthen the management of water and fertilizer, remove the disease leaves, remove the leaves in the late autumn and burn them down centrally. Spray the 75% wettable granules of 800 times or 70% times of the anthrax 500 times to spray, once every 10 days, and 3~4 times effectively control the disease.
Special fungicides: pencillum, kresoxim, amicida, etc. have special effects on diseases caused by fungi.
First of all, the small leaves turn green and the leaves turn yellow. After the disease expands, the whole leaves turn yellow, and then gradually turn white. The plant growth gradually declines and finally dies.
Prevention and control method: it is mainly caused by the soil is too sticky, the pH value exceeds the standard, and the iron element supply is insufficient.
It can be irrigated with 0.2% ferrous sulfate solution, and can also be sprayed with 0.1% ferrous sulfate solution, and the farmyard manure should be applied more.
(3) Leaf burn
In the early stage, the leaves were scorched, and the later ones were shriveled and withered. In severe cases, the new leaves did not spread out, and a large number of leaves withered and fell off.
The disease often occurs under the conditions of large soil hardening area, small green space area, long-term high temperature, drought and strong light; soil alkalization or excessive flower amount.
Control methods: increase the frequency of watering, keep the soil moist; apply more organic fertilizer to improve the resistance of the plant, white or wind up the tree.
The insect pests include Demoiselle moth, Anoplophora glabripennis, red spider, longicorn, etc. in case of insect damage, 8 dichlorvos, fenitrothion, and large coir moth can be killed; Bt emulsion and fenitrothion can be used to kill the moth;
The red spider was killed by 4-trichlorofol and nisolone;
Longicorn beetles were killed with green WeiLei and grubs were killed by root irrigation with zinc, sulfur and phosphorus emulsion.