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Orchid breeding methods and precautions: orchids like shade, afraid of direct sunlight

Orchid in China has always been regarded as a symbol of elegance, and with "plum, bamboo, chrysanthemum" juxtaposition, collectively known as the "four gentlemen.". So how are orchids cultivated? What good method is there in breeding? What do you need to pay attention to when breeding orchids? Please read with me with questions!

Beautiful orchid breeding method (basic knowledge): the best breeding time: the best breeding time of orchid is from March to April.

The best growing soil: the soil for orchid should be mainly humus, mainly humus leaf soil or mountain humus soil. In the south, humus soil of origin, commonly known as orchid mud, can also be made into loose, aerated and permeable culture soil by humus soil, vermiculite, perlite, etc. The culture soil prepared is slightly acidic.

Growth humidity requirements: orchids should be moist but not wet, dry but not dry. The humidity in daytime is 70-90%.

The optimum growth temperature is 16 ~ 24 ℃.

The best growth light: orchids like shade, afraid of direct sunlight, so spring, summer, autumn three seasons to shade. In order to control the amount of light, it is better to put the orchids on the balcony windowsill or under the eaves with bamboo shade. Generally, the orchids should be shaded before 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., and the curtain should be opened after 6:00 p.m. to receive the scattered sunlight.

Tips for orchid breeding: fertilizer application: the fertilization principle of orchid is that no fertilizer can be applied, nor can it be applied more or more. Generally speaking, a small amount of light fertilizer can be applied several times for new leaf buds. The spring equinox, autumnal equinox and about 20 days after flower withering are the more appropriate seasons. The best fertilization time was in the evening, and the next morning, water was poured once more. It was applied once every 2-3 weeks. At the same time, 20 times a day, 1 times of potassium dihydrogen phosphate was sprayed. Fertilization according to the color of the leaves is a more appropriate method. If the leaves are yellow and thin, they are lack of fertilizer and should be topdressing. If the leaves are black and the tip is burnt, it is too much fertilizer, so fertilization should be stopped. Fertilizer must be rotten. It can't be used without being decomposed. It is forbidden to use human manure.

Key points of watering:

(1) During the flowering and budding stage of orchid, water should be less.

(2) In summer, watering in the morning or evening should not be too much. The amount of watering in autumn can be increased.

(3) in the dry season, spray every evening. Spray upward when spraying, then the mist point is fine and even, so that the leaf surface is moist, the ground is moist, and the air humidity is increased. Sometimes it's better to spray several times a day. Water should be poured from the edge of the basin instead of pouring in front of the head or at noon.

(4) Although watering in winter can be greatly reduced, it is not necessary to do without watering. Pay attention not to let the basin soil dry thoroughly. The leaf sheath of leaves is wet during the late winter and early spring. After drying in the sun, the leaves are moved into the room to avoid rot.

Pruning tips: orchid cultivation should continue to cut off the yellow leaves and disease leaves, in order to facilitate ventilation. After the flower buds are unearthed, one strong flower bud should be left for each plant, and the rest should be cut off, so as not to consume too much nutrients and affect the next year's flowering. After the flower withers, the flower stalk should be cut off.

Basin soil replacement:

(1) The best time to change pots and introduce orchids is from autumn to October. It is necessary to change the pot every two years. It is not good for the growth of orchid to change the pot early or frequently.

(2) Some orchids cultivated in small "orchid pots" grow well. When the number of seedlings reaches more than six, the pots should be changed once a year.

(3) For those orchids with poor growth and serious dry and burnt leaf tips, there may be rotten roots, or the soil can not adapt to it. At this time should change basin in time. Emergency basin change can be carried out at any time, but attention must be paid to the warmth and moisture after changing the basin.

Main points of propagation: most orchids are propagated by ramets and tissue culture, and the cultivated varieties are sown.

Ramet propagation: ramets are carried out in spring and autumn, which vary with species. The flowering species in winter and spring should be divided at the end of autumn; the flowering species in summer and autumn should be carried out before the germination of early spring. Generally, the ramets are divided once every 2-3 years. Water should be reduced before dividing to make the soil dry properly; when dividing, hold the basin with hand, gently knock out the mother plant from the basin, remove the soil, cut off the rotten roots and leaves, and then wash them with clean water and put them in the shade for 3-5 hours. When the floating water disappears and the roots become white and soft, they will be cut from the middle of the pseudobulb with a sharp knife, and the cut will be coated with grass and wood ash to prevent corrosion, and then plant immediately after it is dried in the shade. The ramet operation should be careful to prevent damage to leaf buds and fleshy roots. After the basin is put in the shade, after the recovery of growth, it will be transferred to normal management.

Pest control:

1. Phytophthora: avoid excessive humidity, improve ventilation conditions, sufficient light. Avoid partial use of nitrogen fertilizer to reduce plant growth and weakness. Spray 1 / 800 carbendazim or 1 / 1000 haoshengling water solution. The cut wounds of diseased plants should be smeared with cornstarch and placed in a dry place without watering for a week to prevent the spread of the disease.

2. Anthrax: spray 1 / 1000 times of thiophanate methyl or carbendazim once a week.

3. Soft rot: improve growth conditions, increase ventilation, reduce temperature and humidity. The spread of the disease can be stopped by removing the infected part, smearing it with antibiotic powder and not watering for a week. Use streptomycin 1000 times water solution, stone sulfur mixture or Bordeaux solution 500 times water solution, spray once a week.

4. Leaf blight: cut off the diseased leaves and spray 500 times Dasheng - 45 times or 1000 times Haosheng. In order to prevent the disease from aggravating, rain or water spraying should be avoided. Spray 500 times of dashen-45 once a day for prevention.

5. Sclerotium Blight: excise the Pseudobulbus with diseased spots, and burn the potted dishes and plant materials with fire. Spray 500 times of dasheng-45 solution or 1000 times of carbendazim once a week.

Orchid cultivation experience: 1, orchid cultivation environment should be well ventilated, moist air, no pollution. Orchid basin to choose high basin. Thick on the bottom of the fine, with multiple drainage holes, or basin wall with drainage holes.

2. In orchid cultivation, the withered and yellow old leaves and disease and insect leaves should be continuously cut to facilitate ventilation. After the flower buds are unearthed, one strong flower bud should be left for each plant, and the rest should be cut off, so as not to consume too much nutrients and affect the next year's flowering. After the flower withers, the flower stalk should be cut off. 3. In hot season, watering should be done after sunset in the evening, so as to prevent the moisture on the leaf surface from being burned by the sun, and to prevent high temperature water from soaking the tender part of the lower end of the new bud.

4. In the cold season, watering should be carried out in the daytime, so as to avoid the water in the basin at night, especially avoid the accumulation of water in the orchid heart, which is easy to rot the young plants.

5. When there are disease spots on the leaves of orchid plants, the leaves should be kept dry to prevent the spread of pathogens.

6. Be careful not to water too often. Orchid tolerance to water is very large, is more drought tolerant plants, a little dry little impact is not. On the contrary, if the roots are too wet, the plants will die if they are watered for 24 hours.