Vanilla is a perennial bulbous herbaceous flower. Its color is pure white like snow, and its fragrance is quiet like orchid, so it is named vanilla. How to breed vanilla? This article will introduce the cultivation method of vanilla to you.
Cultivation methods (basic knowledge) of potted Vanilla: 1. Soil: Vanilla likes sandy loam with rich organic matter, strong water retention and good drainage, ph6-7.2, and acid soil is more suitable for planting.
2. Watering: keep the soil moist after planting and before sprouting. After budding, the amount of water should be reduced gradually, and the soil surface should be kept dry as much as possible, so as to reduce the air humidity and prevent diseases.
3. Light: Although xiangxuelan likes light, it also needs to avoid strong light. When the light is too strong and the temperature is high, it can be shaded by a sunscreen with a light transmittance of 70%.
4. Temperature: temperature management is very important for the production of cut flowers of vanilla. The cold tolerance is poor. The suitable temperature for growth is 15-20 ℃, and the lowest temperature for overwintering is 3-5 ℃. Pay attention to ventilation when the temperature is above 25 ℃, and cover and heat preservation or heating when the temperature is below 10 ℃.
5. Fertilization: the organic fertilizer and compound fertilizer applied before planting can basically meet the needs of growth, but if the plant growth is weak, apply ammonium nitrate, urea and potassium sulfate once more when there are 2-4 leaves. 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate was used as foliar fertilizer at the beginning of flower, but topdressing should be avoided before and after budding. The organic liquid fertilizer is applied once every two weeks, and the compound fertilizer can also be applied appropriately.
6. Insect diseases: vanilla is prone to mosaic, spherical rot and so on. When planting, the soil and seed ball should be thoroughly disinfected, and the basin soil should be completely replaced every year. At the same time, we should pay attention to the control of aphids. In the early stage of aphids, we can spray 40% Omethoate 1500 fold solution or 90% trichlorfon solution for control.
Notes for cultivation of newly blooming Vanilla: 1. In the indoor cultivation process, the plant is often weak and elongated. When pulling the pedicel, the staff should be supported to prevent the pedicel from bending and affect the ornamental value.
Control method: in order to prevent its overgrowth and promote "dwarfing", the method is to treat the seed ball with "Paclobutrazol" before planting, which can achieve excellent results. Before potting vanilla in autumn, soak the stored bulbs in 80 ppm (80 × 10-6) "Paclobutrazol" solution for 15 to 20 hours, take them out and wash them with clear water, then put them into the pot for normal watering and other management. After treatment, the seedlings of vanilla are neat, the leaves are thick green, the width of the leaves is increased, the length is reduced, and the fragrance is stronger after flowering. The branches of vanilla are soft, the inflorescence is flexed and grows, and the branches are easy to droop and fall when the flowers are long. At the stage of 3-4 leaves, the scaffold net can be set up, the first net can be set up from about 25cm above the ground, and the second to third net can be set up with the growth of the plant. Generally, 10cm × 10cm or 10cm × 15cm grid is used for the mesh of the net.
2. Diseases: vanilla is prone to mosaic, bulbous rot, etc.
Control method: thoroughly disinfect the soil and seed ball when planting, and replace the basin soil every year. At the same time, we should pay attention to the control of aphids. In the early stage of aphids, we can spray 40% Omethoate 1500 fold solution or 90% trichlorfon solution for control. Tips on Cultivation of xiangxuelan 1. Propagation mode: the bulbs are usually sown in September, and the plantlets or seeds are generally used for sowing. After 1-2 years of cultivation, the bulbs can be bred into high-quality seed balls.
2. Seed selection: for cultivation, the ball with a diameter of more than 1cm should be selected. In order to reduce virus infection, it is necessary to select virus-free tissue culture balls or new balls cultivated by seeds and subballs.
3. Potting: soak the stored seed balls in 80 ppm "Paclobutrazol" solution for 15 to 20 hours before potting, take out and wash with water. When planting, the soil is usually covered with 2-3cm, never too thick. After planting, the soil surface is often covered with a thin layer of peat soil or pine needles, straw, sawdust, etc. to keep the soil moist.